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1

What are the normal physiological changes of the older adult for the musculoskeletal system?

-decreas in subQ tissue adn weight
-decreased muscle mass and strength
-bone demineralization (fracture more common)
-joints stiffen
-decreased flexibility and ROM
-height decreases 1 to 3 inches

2

What are the normal physiological changes of the older adult for cognition?

-normal delay in response
-short term memory loss common
-long term memory in tact

3

What are the normal physiological changes of the older adult for the neurologic system?

-cognitive and behavioral response may be delayed
-delayed reflex response
-temp, pain, pressure perception less efficient
-loss of sensation in extremities
-difficulty with balance, coordination, fine movements, and spatial orientation
-sleep at night typically shortens

4

What are the normal physiological changes of the older adult for cardiovascular?

-blood vessels less elastic
--peripheral pulses not always palpable
-lower extremeity edema and cooling may occur
-orthostatic hypotension may occue
-difficulty increasing HR and cardiac output with activity
-decreased cardiac output and reduced stroke volume

5

What are the normal physiological changes of the older adult for respiratory system?

-diminished respiratory frequency
-lung mass decreases and residual volume increases
-pulmonary elasticity and ciliary action decreases
-RR may increase, diminished depth

6

What are the normal physiological changes of the older adult for GI?

-malnutrition and anemia are common
-digestive juices diminish and nutrient absorption decreases
-decreased peristalsis
-decreased saliva production

7

What are the normal physiological changes of the older adult for GU?

-decreased blood flow to kidneys
-decreased number of functioning nephrons (waste filtered/excreted more slowly)
-fluid/electrolyte balance fragile
-bladder capacity decreases by 50%
-75% of men have BPH
-thinning and decrease of vaginal secretions