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What does skeletal muscle and adipose tissue have receptors for?

-skeletal muscle and adipose is insulin dependent


What does insulin unlock?

receptors so glucose can move into the cell to be used for energy (from the blood to the cell??)


Other tissues (brain, liver, blood) dont require insulin for glucose glucose transport, but what do they require glucose for?

to function


Liver cells are not insulin dependent but why do they have receptor sites?

to facilitate uptake of glucose and convert it to glycogen


What are the counter-regulatory hormones?

glucagon, epinephrine, growth hormone, cortisol


The counter-regulatory hormones (glucagon, epinephrine, growth hormone, cortisol) oppose the effects of insulin and increase blood glucose levels by doing what?

-stimulate glucose production and release by the liver
-decrease movement of glucose into cell
-this helps to maintain normal blood glucose levels


The counter-regulatory hormones (glucagon, epinephrine, growth hormone, cortisol) and insulin maintain blood glucose levels within the normal range by doing what?

regulating the release of glucose for energy during food intake and periods of fasting


What was type 1 diabetes formerly known as?

-insulin dependent


Who is generally affected by type 1 DM?

people under age 40
-but can occur at any age


What type of disorder is Type 1 DM?

-the body develops antiboties against insulin and/or pancreatic beta cells that produce insulin
-this results in not enough insulin to survive


What are 3 types of the genetic link of T1DM?

-predisposition to type 1 related to human leukocyte antigens (certain HLA types who are exposed to a virus then the beta cells are destroyed directly or through autoimmune process)
-Idiopathic diabetes which is strongly inherited (mostly hispanic, African, or Asian)
-Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults which is a slowly progressing form of type 1 and is often mistaken for type 2.


In T1DM how long are the islet cell autoantibodies responsible for beta cell destruction present before onset of symptoms?

months to years


When will the manifestations of T1DM develop?

when the persons pancreas can no longer produce sufficient amounts of insulin to maintain normal glucose levels


Once the manifestations of T1DM occurs (usually rapidly) what will the patient present with?

-impedending or actual ketoacidosis
-history of recent and sudden weight loss
-polydipsia (excessive thirst)
-polyuria (frequent urination)
-polyphagia (excessive hunger)


Where is the bottom line with T1DM?

thye have to have insulin from an outside source (exogenous)
-or they will develop DKA: diabetic ketoacidosis which is a life threatening disease


What might patients with T1DM experience after treatment is initiated?

3-12 month remission
-the patient requires very little injected insulin because beta cell production remains sufficient for healthy insulin.