Flashcards in Diagnosis of Effusions Deck (20):
What tubes should be used for collection of fluid samples?
EDTA tube for cell counts/cytology/protein
Serum tubes for biochemistry
What are the main things to count in a fluid sample?
Total nucleated cell count (TNCC)
Cell identification and morphology
What are the factors affecting fluid movement in/out of body cavities?
Capillary wall permeability
What are the types of effusions and their charecteristics?
Transudate (low cell count low protein)
Modified transudate - in between
Exudate - high protein, high cell count
What are the causes of modified transudates?
What are the causes of exudates?
-Inflammation of plural/abdominal cavities or linings
-Long standing modified transudate
How can iatrogenic, ongoing, acute and chronic haemorrhage be distinguished?
I/ongoing - erythrocytes
Acute - erythrophages
Chronic - siderophages, haemosiderin
What is chylous effusion?
effusion with chylomicrons in. It appears opaque and milky.
What is seen in a chylous effusion cytologically?
What are mesothelial cells?
Normal lining cells of the thoracic and abdominal cavities.
How can reactive meothelial cells be distinguished from neoplastic cells?
Reactive: occur due to inflammation/effusions.
V. hard to distinguish reactive from neoplastic - need experience/ to biopsy a mass if seen.
What ectopic sources of fluid are there?
Urine - urabdomen
What might the following things indicate if they are increased in the fluid compared to plasma?
c) bile duct/gall bladder rupture
What is the normal amount of fluid that can be collected from a horse abdomen?
3-5ml - more than this = effusion
What type of fluid is a normal equine peritoneal fluid?
What is the normal protein, cell count and cell type for small animals?
TP 25 - 30g/L
TNCC - <3 x10e9/L
What is the transudate protein, cell count and cell type for small animals?
TP <0.5 x10e9/L
Mesothelial cells/macrophages/low nos. non-degenerate neutrophils
What is the modified transudate protein, cell count and cell type for small animals?
TP 25 - 50g/L
TNCC - 0.3 - 5.5 x10e9/L
Mesothelial cells/macrophages, non-degenerate neutrophils, small lymphocytes
What is the exudate protein, cell count and cell type for small animals?
TNCC - >3 x10e9/L
Neutrophils, macrophages (lymphocytes, eosinophils)