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Flashcards in Intro to Dentistry Deck (22)
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What should one check in a neonate and 8 week old puppy?

Cleft palate in neonate Occlusion & correct number of teeth


Describe the normal occlusion of a dog.

1. Maxillary incisors in front of mandibular 2. Mandibular canine in front of maxillary 3. Zig zag pattern of pre molar occlusion 4. Upper PM4 should be buccal to lower PM1


What are common malocclusions that may need correcting?

Lingually displaced mandibular canine Persistant deciduous teeth Supernumary teeth


What is 'mixed dentition'?

When an animal is teething there may be both permanent and deciduous teeth present. It is only when a permanent tooth has erupted and the deciduous tooth is still there that this is a pathology.


How should a persistent deciduous tooth be treated?

Dental radiographs Extraction


What is the most common persistent deciduous tooth?

The canines


What are the reasons teeth might be missing?

Hypodontia Impacted/imbedded tooth Traumatic crown fracture below gingival margin Previous extraction


How would one determine the reason for a missing tooth?



How can hypoplastic enamel occur?

Can be due to slow development before eruption of the tooth.


What are the differentials for a lack of crown structure?

Abrasions - contact with an object Attrition - contact with other teeth -formation of reperative dentine or, -pulp exposure Fractures - pulp exposure - root fracture - crown and root fracture - chip fracture - pulpal blush Intrinsic staining


How can pulp exposure be distinguished from reparative dentine?

Run a probe over the surface. Pulp exposure will be a hole whereas reparative dentine has a hard continuous surface.


Where do draining sinus tracts often occur and why?

At the muco-gingival junction as this is where the junctions between epithelial cells are at their weakest.


What does the following radiograph depict?

An apical tooth infection.


How is a fractured tooth treated?

  • Analgesia
  • Antibiotics if there is an abscess or if keeping tooth viable for specialist surgery (in puppies)
  • Then:
    • Extraction
    • Vital Pulp Treatment
    • Root canal therapy


What needs to be done to diagnose an oral mass lesion?

Radiographs and biopsy


Does oral neoplasia always present as a mass?

No, it can also present as a destructive lesion.


What would a speckled lesion on a radiograph indicate?

An oral mass lesion. A gingival mass may be called an ossifying epulis


What should be added to the regular history taking in terms of oral problems?

  • Type & frequency of oral home care
  • Wet or dry diet
  • Availability of chewing objects
  • Chewing behaviour


Describe an oral examination.

  1. Observe
    1. Symetry
    2. Discharges
    3. Skin lesions
  2. Palpate
    1. Bones (Orbit, zygomatic arch, ventral mandible)
    2. External masticatory muscles
    3. Mandibular lymph nodes
  3. Retro-pulse eyes
  4. Lift lip margins
  5. Assess visually:
    1. Buccal and lingual mucosa
    2. Buccal aspect of teeth
    3. Occlusion (closed mouth)
  6. Open mouth
    1. Tip  - press 


When does eruption of decidouos teeth start and finish?

3-4 weeks and finishes between 2-3 months


What is the dental formula of:

a) a puppy

b) a kitten

c) a dog

d) a cat

a) I 3/3 C 1/1 PM3/3

b) I 3/3 C 1/1 PM 2/3

c) I 3/3 C 1/1 PM 4/4 M 3/4

d) I 3/3 C 1/1 PM 2/3 M 1/1


n.b. that the carnassial teeth are counted first in the cat this is maxilla PM4 and mandibular M1.


When do adult teeth erupt in dogs?

between 3-7 months

and canines between 4-6 months