Flashcards in Small Mammal GI Disease Deck (25)
Why do small mammals have to digest food twice?
They have a very fast gut transit time which enables them to stay light in order to avoid predators.
What are the different types of fibre eaten by a rabbit and why are they needed?
Digestible - fermented to produce VFAs in the gut.
Indigestible - Stimulate gut motility and promote dental wear
Why are diagnostic imaging techniques often not very useful when visualising the stomach of small mammals?
The stomach is often full so makes it hard.
What part of the colon controls LI gut motility and where is it located?
Fusus coli - distal part of proximal colon
Where are caecotrophs produced, how often are they released, and what do they provide for the animal?
Caecum. 3-8 hours. Digested in SI to release microbial protein, vitamin B (n.b. rodents still need additional B vits) K vits and fatty acids.
Which antibiotics will kill small mammals if given orally?
P - Penicillins
L - Lincocamides
A - Aminoglycocides
C - Cephalosporins
E - Erythromycin
What are the common causes of gut stasis?
Dehydration (can be cause or consequence)
Anorexia (can be cause or consequence)
Primary GI disease
Lack of fibre
How can partial gut stasis be distinguished from complete gut stasis?
Partial - some pellets still being produced.
What is the logical approach to gut stasis?
-Complete vs. partial?
-Primary or secondary GI
-Is there a lesion?
What essential elements of history taking are needed?
Indoor/outdoor. Companions. Changes e.g. to routine?
Access to FBs or toxins
Diet (any treats)
Eating and faeces production?
What important notes should one note when performing a clinical exam on a rabbit?
Always look in the mouth
If the rabbit has been stressed then may not have gut sounds straight away - give time to calm down.
When should primary GI disease be suspected?
Palpable abnormality e.g. FB
If gut stasis precedes by malaise/anorexia
When should secondary GI be suspected?
History of stress
Obvious signs of pain
If depression/anorexia precedes gut stasis
What are the 5 points to keep in mind when stabilising a rabbit?
4. Gut stimulants
What should one be careful of when warming rabbits?
They are prone to any temp changes as high SA to vol ration so are prone to overheating.
What is the maintenance fluid rate for a rabbit?
What can be added to aid SC fluid absorption? What else can be done?
Warm the fluids
What drugs are often given as gut stimulants
Metaclopramide - however this has little/no effect on colonic motility.
What analgesia can be used?
NSAIDS - <0.05mg/kg q6-8 hrs
Can concious radiographs be performed in rabbits?
Yes possibly. If highly stressed and kicking out then could break back but normally ok.
How can stasis be checked for if uncertain?
What is a reason surgery may not be indicated?
Most of the time disease resolves with symptomatic treatment. However can have recurrent episodes.
What are common causes of diarrhoea in rabbits?
Diet (e.g. fruit)
Enteritis (bacterial, viral)
How would one adapt the 5 point system for rabbits with diarrhoea?
Probably don't want to give gut stimulants.