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Flashcards in Icterus in Small Animals Deck (20):
1

What is icterus?

hyperbilirubinaemia

2

What are the different types of icterus and their causes?

Pre-hepatic - Haemolysis, conjugation and uptake overwhelmed

Hepatic - uptake, conjugation and excretion overwhelmed

Post-hepatic - Cholestasis, conjugation, excretion and uptake back to liver overwhelmed

3

What are some of the signs of HE?

Changes in personality
Ptyalism (cats)
Head pressing
Seizures
Disorientation
Stupor

4

What are the DDx for prehepatic icterus?

HAEMOLYSIS
-Immune Haemolytic Anaemia
Babesia Infection
Toxins

5

What are the DDx for hepatic icterus in the cat?

-Suppurative cholangiohepatits
-Lymphacytic plasmacytic hepatitis
-Hepatic lipidosis
-FIP
-Toxins
-Neoplasia

6

What are the DDx for hepatic icterus in the dog?

-Acute liver disease (toxins)
-Leptospirosis
-Chronic Hepatitis
-Neoplasia

7

What are the DDx for posthepatic icterus?

-Pancreatitis
-Neoplasia
-Cholelithiasis (uncommon)

8

How would you differentiate between prehepatic and hepatic icterus?

PCV + TP

Pre-hepatic - low PCV but TP normal

Hepatic - normal PCV (TP may be low if albumin is affected)

9

When would imaging be used when diagnosing the cause of icterus?

To determine whether hepatic and post hepatic - this will allow visualisation of the gall bladder and pacreas.

10

What is the workup for hepatic diseases?

Haem, biochem, UA
Liver Function test
Coagulation test
Ultrasound
FNA (and culture of bile)
Liver biopsy

11

Why is it important to do a coagulation test when working up the liver?

Need to do prior to biopsy as biopsy may result in severe bleeding.

12

Why is liver enzyme elevation not always indicative of liver function?

Can happen due to reversible damage to hepatocytes. Liver has a huge regenerative capacity

13

Which liver enzymes are present where?

ALT specific to liver
AST in muscle and intestines
AP biliary duct cells. Can be cortisol induced production

14

What indicators, other than liver enzymes, are there of liver failure on a biochem profile?

Low albumin, cholesterol, glucose and BUN

15

How is a bile acid test performed in SAs, and what does it indicate?

Measure fasted then after a meal - as bile is released in response to meal.

If bile acids are present in the blood this indicates reduced uptake into the liver from the portal vein.

16

How does hepatic encephalopathy occur?

Liver has reduced capacity to deal with nitrogenous waste so ammonia and aromatic:BCAA increase in the blood. These then affect the CNS.

17

Other than the neurologic signs, what may indicate HE?

Urate stone formation due to increased ammonia in the blood and reduced ability to convert uric acid in the liver => more urate in urine.

18

What diseases cause HE in cats?

Acute liver failure (toxin)
Hepatic lipidosis
Neoplasia
Portosystemic shunts

19

What diseases cause HE in dogs?

Portosystemic shunts
Acute and chronic liver failure

20

How can a cat with hepatic lipidosis be treated?

Get protein in them!