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Flashcards in Digestive System Deck (128)
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31

Positions food during chewing, mixes food with saliva to form a bolus, initiates swallowing

tongue

32

What are the 3 salivary glands?

parotid gland, submandibular gland, and sublingual glands

33

What are the functions of the saliva?

cleanses mouth, dissolves food chemicals, moistens food, and begins chemical breakdown of starch

34

Between which 2 ages do teeth begin to erupt?

6-24 months

35

How many permanent teeth can one have?

32

36

What are the 4 classes of teeth? Amount upper L or R?

incisors (2), canines (1), premolars (2), and molars (3)

37

What are the 3 main parts of the teeth?

crown, neck, and root

38

Nasopharynx, Oropharynx, and laryngopharynx

Pharynx

39

Which organ is lined by the stratified squamous epithelium?

esophagus

40

Which digestive processes occur in the mouth?

ingestion, mechanical breakdown, propulsion, and digestion

41

Which digestive process occur in the pharynx and esophagus?

propulsion

42

How does mastication occur?

Cheeks and lips hold food between teeth, teeth cut and grind, and tongue from a bolus

43

How does deglutition occur?

tongue presses against hard palate and bolus is forced into oropharynx

44

Wha are the 2 phases in delglutition? voluntary?

Buccal phase- voluntary

Paryngeal-Esophageal Phase- Involuntary

45

What moves food through esophagus?

Peristalsis

46

What are the functions of the stomach?

temporary food storage (50mL/4L), begins chemical breakdown of proteins, and converts bolus to chyme

47

What controls food entry into the duodenum?

pyloric sphincter

48

What is the extra layer in the stomach?

oblique layer

49

In the stomach, where are gastric pits located?

mucosa

50

How are gastric juices produces?

gastric pits lead into gastric glands

51

What are the 4 major cells types in the gastric gland?

mucous neck cells, parietal cells, chief cells, and enteroendocrine cells

52

Required for absorption of vitamin B12

intrinsic factor

53

Secrete mucus

mucous neck cells

54

Secretes HCl and intrinsic factor, activate pepsin

Parietal cells

55

Secrete pepsinogen

chief cells

56

Secrete gastrin

enteroendocrine cells

57

Protects stomach mucosa, created by thick layer of bicarbonate-rich mucus

mucosal barrier

58

In mechanical breakdown, bolus is converted into..?

chyme

59

In Digestion, what is the purpose of HCl and pepsin?

HCl- denatures proteins

Pepsin- begins digestion of proteins

60

In propulsion, where is chyme delivered?

small intestines