Drugs Flashcards Preview

UWORLD QuestionQuestions > Drugs > Flashcards

Flashcards in Drugs Deck (78)
Loading flashcards...
1

What happens to Calcium in Thiazide Diuretics? Name One

other uses of Thiazide diuretics

Block NaCl symporter in DCT = increased excretion of NA, Cl, H2O

THEREFORE=> Increase Calcium Reabsorption from Nephron, Use in Nephrolithiasis (excess Ca in urine).

Hydrochlorothiazide

Edema due to CHF, renal disease, liver disease

2

Side Effects of Thiazide Diuretics

Hypokalemia, Hypomagnesmia, sometimes hypercalemia/Hyponatremia

3

What kind of Drug is Mannitol?

How does it work?

SE?

OSMOTIC DIURETIC

increasing plasma or tubular fluid osmolality- extraction of waterof water from the interstitial space into the vascular or tubular lumen with diuresis.

Pulmonary edema

4

What steriod does Spirinolactone act on? functions as what type of drug?

Aldosterone Antagonist= Mild Diuretic, K+ sparing diuretic.

5

What side effect of Spirinolactone is seen in 10% of patients? What property of the drug yields this efffect.

Steroid side effect gives rise to Gynecomastia ~10%

6

What drug does Eplenerone act like? how is it different?

Spirinolactone (both Aldosterone antagonist), LESS ENDOCRINE EFFECTS

7

Triameterene is what kind of drug? MOA?

K+ sparing diuretic, Blocks NA Channels in distal tubule/collecting duct. => Na and Fluid excretion

8

t1/2=?

(Vd x 0.70)/CL

9

Mu Opiod receptor activation includes 4 secondary messenger pathways

inhibition of adenylyl cyclase
inhibition of calcium conductance
inhibition of transmitter release
activation of Potassium channel efflux

10

Potassium efflux at the post synaptic neuron will cause what?

which drug does this?

efflux=> hyperpolarization of postsynapic neurons and termination of pain transmission

MORPHINE

11

p450 Inducers

Barbiturates
phenytoin
rifampin
carbamazepine
griseofulvin
chronic alchohol

12

p450 inhibitors

Isoniazid,
cimetidine
amiodarone
TMP-SMX
macrolides
azole antifungals + omeprazole
grapefruit juic

13

What type of drugs decrease warfarin's efficacy?

which would inhibit warfarins metabolism- too much bleeding?

p450 inducers

p450 inhibitors

14

N-acetylcysteine MOA? whats it used in?

cleaves disulfide bonds within mucus glycoproteinns and loosens thich sputum

Used in CF treatment

15

Rare side effect of Ticlipidine and how it presents

NEUTROPENIA

fever
mouth ulcers

16

(for each # below) name Antiplatelet drug and how it:

1) Blocks formation of ligands
2) Block interaction of ligands with receptors on platelets
3) Interfere with intracellular signaling

1) Aspirin- decr. TXA2 formation

2)Clopidogrel/Ticlopidine- ADP Antagonists

3) Cilostazol/Diyrimidamole- Incr. cAMP by decr. phosphodiesterase activity

17

Anticholinergic toxicity symptoms?
drugs that cause this?

Fever
dryness (mucosal/axilary)
cutaneous flushing
mydriasis
delerium

Atropine, TCA's (amytriptyline)

18

Antibiotics that disrupt cell wall synthesis

Penicillins
cephalosporins
vancomycin

19

Loop diuretics MOA?

used in?

SEs?

inhibit NAK2Cl symporter in the ascending loop of henle to block Na and Cl transport and increase NA Cl and fluid excretion.

used in pulmonary edema, venous and pulmonary congestion secondary to CHF
peripheral edema


Hypokalemia, hypomagnesmia, hypocalcemia

20

Loop Diuretics- name 3 & SE?

furosemide
bumetanide
torsemide

Hypokalemia, hypomagnesimia, hypocalcemia, ototoxicity

21

Thiazide diuretics- name 2 & SE?

Chlorthalidone
hydrochlorothiazide

Hypokalemia, hyponatremia, hyperuricemia, hypercalcemia

22

Potassium sparing diuretics- name 2 & SE?

Triamterene
spironolactone - decrease morbidity in CHF pts

Hyperkalemia,
Spirinolactone: gynecomastia, anti-androgen effects

23

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors name 1 and side effects?

acetazolamide

Somnolence, paresthesias, urine alkalinization, dehydration, hypokalemia, hyponatremia, Metabolic acidosis

24

Osmotic diuretics name one and side effects?

Mannitol

Hypernatremia, pulmonary edema

25

Gram+ Catalase-
Optochin Resistant?
Optochin Sensitive?
What hemolysis are these bugs?

Strep. Viridans
Strep. Pneumoniae

alpha hemolytic

26

Gram+ Catalase-
Bacitracin Resistant?
Bacitracin Sensitive?
What type of hemolysis are these bugs?

Strep. Agalactiae
Strep. pyogenes

B-hemolytic

27

Gram+ Catalase-
Grow bile & 6.5% NaCl?
Growth and Bile but not 6.5% NaCl?
hemolysis?

Enterococci
E.Faecium

Noneterococci
S. Bovis

None

28

How do carbonic anhydrase inhibitors work?

where else is carbonic anhydrase present & what else do inhibitors treat?

Inhibit carbonic anhydrase which effectively blocks NaHCO3 and water reabsorption in the proximal tubule's resulting in urinary bicarbonate wasting

Eyes- open/closed angle glaucoma; DECR. Aquous humor prod.
Pancreas
G.I. tract
CNS
Red blood cells

29

What is foscarnet and how is it used?

Pyrophosphate analog that can chelate calcium.

Promotes nephrotoxic renal magnesium wasting = >hypocalcemia hypomagnesemia

30

Indication for ganciclovir?

Main side effect?

First line for cytomegalovirus induced retinitis

Severe neutropenia; contraindicated in HIV patients on zidovudine