Flashcards in Drugs Deck (78)
What happens to Calcium in Thiazide Diuretics? Name One
other uses of Thiazide diuretics
Block NaCl symporter in DCT = increased excretion of NA, Cl, H2O
THEREFORE=> Increase Calcium Reabsorption from Nephron, Use in Nephrolithiasis (excess Ca in urine).
Edema due to CHF, renal disease, liver disease
Side Effects of Thiazide Diuretics
Hypokalemia, Hypomagnesmia, sometimes hypercalemia/Hyponatremia
What kind of Drug is Mannitol?
How does it work?
increasing plasma or tubular fluid osmolality- extraction of waterof water from the interstitial space into the vascular or tubular lumen with diuresis.
What steriod does Spirinolactone act on? functions as what type of drug?
Aldosterone Antagonist= Mild Diuretic, K+ sparing diuretic.
What side effect of Spirinolactone is seen in 10% of patients? What property of the drug yields this efffect.
Steroid side effect gives rise to Gynecomastia ~10%
What drug does Eplenerone act like? how is it different?
Spirinolactone (both Aldosterone antagonist), LESS ENDOCRINE EFFECTS
Triameterene is what kind of drug? MOA?
K+ sparing diuretic, Blocks NA Channels in distal tubule/collecting duct. => Na and Fluid excretion
(Vd x 0.70)/CL
Mu Opiod receptor activation includes 4 secondary messenger pathways
inhibition of adenylyl cyclase
inhibition of calcium conductance
inhibition of transmitter release
activation of Potassium channel efflux
Potassium efflux at the post synaptic neuron will cause what?
which drug does this?
efflux=> hyperpolarization of postsynapic neurons and termination of pain transmission
azole antifungals + omeprazole
What type of drugs decrease warfarin's efficacy?
which would inhibit warfarins metabolism- too much bleeding?
N-acetylcysteine MOA? whats it used in?
cleaves disulfide bonds within mucus glycoproteinns and loosens thich sputum
Used in CF treatment
Rare side effect of Ticlipidine and how it presents
(for each # below) name Antiplatelet drug and how it:
1) Blocks formation of ligands
2) Block interaction of ligands with receptors on platelets
3) Interfere with intracellular signaling
1) Aspirin- decr. TXA2 formation
2)Clopidogrel/Ticlopidine- ADP Antagonists
3) Cilostazol/Diyrimidamole- Incr. cAMP by decr. phosphodiesterase activity
Anticholinergic toxicity symptoms?
drugs that cause this?
Atropine, TCA's (amytriptyline)
Antibiotics that disrupt cell wall synthesis
Loop diuretics MOA?
inhibit NAK2Cl symporter in the ascending loop of henle to block Na and Cl transport and increase NA Cl and fluid excretion.
used in pulmonary edema, venous and pulmonary congestion secondary to CHF
Hypokalemia, hypomagnesmia, hypocalcemia
Loop Diuretics- name 3 & SE?
Hypokalemia, hypomagnesimia, hypocalcemia, ototoxicity
Thiazide diuretics- name 2 & SE?
Hypokalemia, hyponatremia, hyperuricemia, hypercalcemia
Potassium sparing diuretics- name 2 & SE?
spironolactone - decrease morbidity in CHF pts
Spirinolactone: gynecomastia, anti-androgen effects
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors name 1 and side effects?
Somnolence, paresthesias, urine alkalinization, dehydration, hypokalemia, hyponatremia, Metabolic acidosis
Osmotic diuretics name one and side effects?
Hypernatremia, pulmonary edema
What hemolysis are these bugs?
What type of hemolysis are these bugs?
Grow bile & 6.5% NaCl?
Growth and Bile but not 6.5% NaCl?
How do carbonic anhydrase inhibitors work?
where else is carbonic anhydrase present & what else do inhibitors treat?
Inhibit carbonic anhydrase which effectively blocks NaHCO3 and water reabsorption in the proximal tubule's resulting in urinary bicarbonate wasting
Eyes- open/closed angle glaucoma; DECR. Aquous humor prod.
Red blood cells
What is foscarnet and how is it used?
Pyrophosphate analog that can chelate calcium.
Promotes nephrotoxic renal magnesium wasting = >hypocalcemia hypomagnesemia