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Flashcards in MUSCULOSKELETAL Deck (48)
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1

Which type of arthritis affects Distal InterPhalangeal joints (&PIP) ? is morning stiffness associated with it?

Osteoarthritis
VERY LITTLE <30 min

2

Which type of arthritis affects Proximal interphalangeal joints and metacarcophalangeal joints?

is morning stiffness associated with it?

Rheumatoid arthritis

YES, may persist for hours.

3

What is deficient in atypical phenylketonuria?

How would this effect prolactin levels?

dihydrobiopterin reducase; gives BH4 => cofactor for Phe-> Tyrosine AND Tyrosine-> DOPA.

Increase due to decreased production of dopamine (dopamine when released from the tuberoinfundibular system inhibits prolactin release)

4

What is the negatively birefringent long yello&blue-crystal of Gouty arthritis?

MONOSODIUM URATE

5

which crystals are positive birefringence and what type of gout is this?

Calcium Pyrophospate

6

what prevents candida systemic infection?

Neutrophils

7

Which nerve causes weakness in the gluteus muscle medius and gluteus minimus muscles? Which test is positive when testing these muscles?

Superior gluteal nerve

Trendelenburg test

8

Which nerve innervates the gluteus maximus muscle what clinical symptoms are seen?

Inferior gluteal nerve

Difficulty rising from the seated position and climbing stairs

9

Rickets histological home Mark? Clinical features (five)

Increase in on mineralized osteoid matrix and widened osteoid seams

Bowed legs, rachitic rosary, Harrison sulci, craniotabes, growth retardation

10

Regular thinning with your interconnections is seen in which bone disease?

Osteoporosis make a total bone mass decrease along with construction of normal bone architecture

11

Subperiosteal resorption with cystic degeneration new paragraph increases osteoclastic activity resulting in increased bone resorption what disease is this?

Hyperparathyroidism in cortical bones only

12

What disease has lamellar bone structure resembling a mosaic? What are cement lines?

Paget's disease- starts as marked local osteoclastic activation followed by increased osteoblastic activity

The regular sections of lamellar bone links by areas of previous bone resorption

13

Wish diseases characterized by spongiosis filling medullary canal with no mature trabeculae?

Osteopetrosis a.k.a. spongiosum is replaced by bone marrow

14

So Ferelara would probably a.k.a. Whipples disease affects which 3 systems?
Paragraph histologic findings include ?

Small intestine
Joints
Central nervous system

Small intestine mucosa W \enlarged foamy macrophages
packed with Rod shaped bacilli & PAS positive diastase resistant granules

15

Treatment of ulcerative colitis

Aminosalicylic acid derivatives

16

What type of virus is parvovirus B 19 and what does it cause (3)

Non-envelopes single-stranded DNA

Erythema infectiosum (fifth disease)
Aplastic crisis and sickle cell anemia
Hydrops fetalis

17

Dimorphic (ovoid) fungus jintercellularly located within macrophages effect lung/reticuloendothelial system? And is present within bird/bat droppings in the Mississippi and Ohio River basins?

Histoplasma capsulatum

18

Spherules packed within endospores are found in which infection?

Coccidioides immitis

19

Narcolepsy is due to?

Cheat with?

Low levels of stimulatory neurotransmitter orexin (hypocretin)

Modafinil

20

Other than seizures what is carbamazepine used to treat?

Trigeminal neuralgia

21

What type of metabolization is linked to drug-induced lupus?

Which drugs are associated with this?

N-Acetylation in the liver

Hydralazine and procainamide

22

What type of metabolism is catalyzed by cytochrome P 450 system?

Liver hydroxylation

23

Suffixes:
Monoclonal antibody
Receptor molecule
Kinase inhibitor

Mab
cept
Nib

24

When would you use:
Rituximab
Infliximab
Certolizumab
Imatinib
Etanercept

CD 20 positive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma's

Rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease'

Autoimmune disorders with Elevated levels of TNF – Alpha

Philadelphia chromosome positive CML and kit – positive gastrointestinal stromal tumors

TNF alpha inhibitor added to methotrexate treatment (when this has failed) for rheumatoid arthritis

25

Osteoporosis patients have what changes to Calcium phosporus, PTH levels?

Normal !!!

26

what happens to Ventilation/Perfusion ratio from Apex to Base of the lung?

Decreases overall

Perfusion Increases much more than ventialtion (also increases)

27

Treatment of Osteoporosis?

what is it made of/from

Bisphosphanates

Pyrophosphate analog a part of hydroxyapatite.

28

where can listeria grow?

cold environment

29

what is the only pathogenic fungus that has a polysaccharide capsule?

what stain is used for this buG?

Cryptococcus Neoformans

Mucicarmine Stain

30

extention of the hand is by what nerve?

what happens with lesion to this nerve

Radial

wrist drop