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Flashcards in Respiratory Deck (34)
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1

Alpha-1 Antitrypsin does what?

reduces tissue damage caused by inflammation through the inhibition of neutrophil elastase.

2

What is seen histologically in a1antitrypsin deficiency?

red/[ink PAS positive granules in periportal hepatocytes.

3

What 2 organ systems are affected by a1 antitrypsin deficiency? and how are they affected.

Liver- FIRST. accumulation of A1AT molecules => cirrohsis, hepatocellular carcinoma

LUNGS- destruction of alveolar walls, large amounts of elastin, by tissue damaging enzyemes. => panacinar emphysema

4

What occurs in the lung when hypoxemia occurs in an underventilated area?

Why is this?

vasoconstriction occurs in the small muscular pulmonary arteries

diverts blood flow from underventilated area toward more well-ventilated areas

5

Where is the lowest pulmonary vascular resistance located on Lung volumes graph?

functional residual capacity (FRC) because here the

lung is maximally compliant,
intrathoracic and atmosphere pressures equal,
allveoli do not eert pressure on vasculature

6

2-4 weeks after initial TB infection what pathenogenesis occurs?

interferon secrtion by activated Tcells leads to M0 activation =>
M0 form epithelioid cells and improves their ability to kill intracellular TB

7

Characteristic of VIRULENT mycobacterial strains?

growth of thick ropelike cords of MB in serpentine = presence of cord factor (virulence factor):

inactivates neutrophils, magages mitochondria, induce rls of TNF

8

In the pathogenesis of Center acinar emphysema proteases such as elastase early strong which to type of cells?

Infiltrating neutrophils
alveoli macrophages

9

DOC theophylline induced cardiac tachycardias?

Morbid SE of Theophyline?

B-blockers

Siezures

10

What physiologic change in alveolar ventilation causes hypocapnia?

What directly indicates this change?

hyperventlation

arterial PaCO2

11

Cheyne-Strokes Respiration description:

When are they seen?

cyclic breathing-> increasing tidal vol, then decr. tidal volume. with intermittent apnea

CHF

12

Kussmal breathing is associated with what disease and what metabolic state?

DKA
Metabolic Acidosis

13

3 main descriptions of Cluster headaches +3 others

unilateral, severe episodic, temporal

ptosis, lacrimation, nasal congestion

14

HIV DRUGS:
Fusion Inhibitors
Protease Inhibitors
Reverse transcriptase inhibitors
Integrase Inhibitors
CCR5 Receptor Inhibitors

F-Enfuviritide
P-saquinivir, ritonavir
RTi-tenofivir, lamovudine, efavirinez
I-Raltegravir
CCR5-maraviroc

15

defective enzymes in orotic aciduria
Presentation (4)
Treatment

Oroate phosphoribyl transferase, OMP decarboxylase

Megaloblastic anemia, neuro abnormalities, growth retardation, orotic acid in urine

Uridine

16

Proto Oncogenes 6

ras
N-myc
ERB-B1/2
TGF
sis
abl

17

Tumor Suppressors 7

BRCA1/2
NF1
APC
DCC
p53
RB
WT1

18

RESPITORY INFXN:Virus
nasopharyngitis/commoncold:
Larygeotracheitis/croup:
Epiglottitis:
Bronchiolitis:


N-Rhino/Inflluenza/Corona
L-Parainfluenza virus
E-Haemophilus Influenza
B-RSV-respiratory syncitial virus

19

Virion protein: host cell receptor
HIVgp120:
EBV gp350:
Parvovirus B19

CD4
CD21
Erythrocyte P antigen

20

Pulmonary lungs chart: what does COPD increase?

RV

21

NonNucleoside Reverse Transcriptase inhibitors-name3

Nevirapine
efavirenz
delavirdine

22

What enzyme is necessary for NRTI's to fxn? name 2

zidovudine
Zalcitabine

thymidine kinase

23

Common problems associated with left ventricular infarct (4)

Left ventricular failure
Cardiogenic acute pulmonary edema
Pulmonary venous hypertension
Transudate of Plasma into lung intersitium/alveoli

24

Where should you perform thoracocentesis?
Midclavicular
Midaxillary
Posterior scapular line

MC- Above 7th Rib
MA- Above 9th Rib
PS- Above 11th Rib

25

where are meningiomas located?

what symptoms are seen in a parasagittal meningioma?

Adjacent to cerebral surface

contralateral spastic paresis of left leg.

26

Pleural aggitation will cause pain where? what is this called?

sharp "Referred" pain in C3-C5 due to phrenic nerve. SHoulders /back

27

WHat does an obstructive flow-volume loop profile look like & what 2 conditions would cause this?

Chronic Bronchitis- increased bronchial resistance

Emphysema- Decreased lung elasticity

Expiratory flow rate DEcreased
RV (Increased) blob moves left.

28

What can cause a restrictive flow-volume pattern?

Pulmonary fibrosis, Hyaline membranes, diffuse intraalveolar hemorrhage, Atelectasis

RV & Expiratory flow rate stay about the same

Decreased Lung volume & Compliance

29

What test is sensitive but not specific for testing the degree of bronchial hyperreactivity in asthma?

negative methacholine challenge test can RULE OUT.

30

what does MCA of brain supply? 3 major areas

face & arms of motor and sensory cortex. Broca's & Wernicke's speech areas & Frontal eye fields