Flashcards in Cardio Deck (138)
AV fistula will cause what changes to TPR, CO, and venous return?
Cardiac Abnormalities of Turner's (3)
Coarctation of Aorta
Bicuspid Aortic Valve
Aortic Dissection in Adulthood
Name 3 Appetite Suppressants, and what can they cause
Secondary pulmonary hypertension
Fenfluramine, dexfluramine, Phentermine
First Line Atrial fibrillation? (2 types)
CCB (diltiazem), Cardioselective B-Blockers
2 Mechanism of Digoxin?
1- Increase Contractility (block Na-K-ATPase on cardiac myocytes=> Incr. intracellular Ca2+)
2-Decr AV nodal conduction (Incr. Parasympathetic Tone)
What is a Blowing Holosystolic murmur best heard over Apex?
Janeway lesions are seen in what disease? What are they?
-Microemboli fragments of infected intracardiac vegetations to cutaneous blood vessels
Describe pulsus paradoxus and what is it associated with (4)
decrease in systolic Blood pressure (10mmHg) w/ inspiration
IN acute cardiac tamponade, constrictive pericarditis, severe obstructive lung disease (ASTHMA) and restrictive cardiomyopathy
what receptor is activated for control of an Asthma exacerbation
b2 agonist => bronchial smooth m relaxation (via increased intracellular cAMP)
S4 (hypertesion related) is due to?
increased stiffness of left ventricular wall
Nitroglycerin dilates what portion of circulatory system? how does this treat angina
VENODILATES=> decr. preload
(which valve problems)
1-Aortic valve calcification?
2-Aortic Vlave infecive endocarditis?
3- Rheumatic aortic heart Disease
Combined Sten + regurg
Lidocaine (Class, specific for, replaced by)?
Class IB antiarrythmic
Ischemic myocardium (it binds rapidly deporalizing/depolarzed cells)
hallmark of preceding cell injury and necrosis- can occur after trauma.
Does coarctation of aorta cause cyanosis?
No. Not unless severe, if so pt dies without corrective surgery
What usually causes acute rheumatic fever? Timing?
Group A Strep. 10d-6weeks before hand.
What cells are typically found in rheumatic fever?
Aschoff giant cells within myocardium
More common myocarditis- bacterial or viral?
Bacterial-GAS rheumatic carditis
Sodium channel binding strength of class 1? (Prioritize class 1A1B1C)
1C>1A>1B. 1C most "use dependence"
Myocyte contraction begins with depolarization of which type of channel?
How is calcium efflux prior to myocyte relaxation achieved?
Use of Ca2+-ATPase and Na+/Ca2+ exchange mechanism. Active process!
Does prolongation of phase 3 of the cardiac action potential increase the QT Interval?
Yes, prolong thre QT Interval of the EKG.
What portion of the EKG do b-blockers affect?
How about the cardiac conduction curve?
Do they change QRS complex?
Prolong the PR interval, decrease SA/AV Nodal activity.
Decrease phase four slope (not as prominent as PR changes).
What is the major factor for forward (thru aortic valve) : regurgitant (back thru mitral valve) volume ratio?
LV Afterload. Increase in Afterload decreases ratio, decrease in Afterload increases the ratio.
What type of myopathy will amyloidosis cause?
What type of dysfunction will be seen?
What are causes of restrictive caardiomyopathies? At least 3
Products of inborn metabolic errors
How do b-blockers decrease blood pressure?
B1 receptors on renal juxtaglomerular cells blocks renin release which does not allow angiotensinogen to become angiotensin 1.
=>no AT 2, no Aldosterone release, no increase blood pressure.
Can b-blockers blunt circulating catecholamines?
No. They have no direct effect.
Combination of which 2 cardio drugs can cause Negative chronotropic effects? What are these effects?
Virapamil/diltiazem & bBlockers (metoprolol)
Severe bradycardia and hypotension.