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Flashcards in Neuro Deck (139)
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1

What occurs in the brain 3-5 days post ischemia/infarct?

Eventually what is seen in this area?

Micoglia (macrophage derivitiive) move to area and phagocytize fragments of neurons,myelin & decrotic debris.

cystic space replaces necrosis and astrocytes form glial scar around periphery

2

Deficient DNA-repair enzyme diseases: (5)

Ataxia-telangiectasia- DNA hypersensitivity to Ionizing radiation


Xeroderma pigmentosum- DNA hypersensitivity to UV radiation

Fanconi Anemia-DNA hypersensitivity to cross-linking agents

Bloom Syndrome - chromosomal instability

Hereditary nonplyposis colorectal cancer- defective DNA mismatch repair enzymes

3

Manifestations of ataxia telangectasia (4) ? and what is the disorder?

DNA hypersensitivity to IONIZING RADIATION

cerebellar ataxia
oculocutaneous telangiectasias
repeated sinopulmonary infections
increased incidence of malignancy

4

Anterior 2/3rds of the Tongue innervation:
General Sensation?
Gustatory sensation?

General-Mandibular division of Trigeminal

Gustatory- chorda tympani of the facial nerve

5

Which nerve of tongue does post 1/3 or ROOT gustatory & sensory?

VAGUS

6

which tongue nerve transmits TASTE, Pain, temp, touch from post. 1/3

Glossopharyngeal

7

How does Infant hydrocephalus present?

long term effects?

irratability
poor feeding
incr. head circumference
enlarged ventricles

lower extremity spasticity- stretch periventricular pyramidal tracts
visual disturbances
learning disabilities

8

Which drug is most commonly associated with Nueruoleptic Malignant syndrome?

which drugs treat this?

Haloperidol- due to antidopaminergic activity

bromocriptine
dantrolene

9

Neuroleptic Malignant syndrome 4 features

difference from serotonin syndrome?

hyperthermia
extreme generalized rigidity
autonomic instability
altered mental status

NO MYOCLONUS

10

Which drugs cause for serotonin syndrome

SSRI's + MAOIs combined

11

multiple ring enhancing lesions in an HIV pt?
(diagnosis)

Toxoplasmosis

12

What type of reaction defect is seen in methlmalonic acidemia?

isomerization of methlmalonyl coA to succinyl CoA

13

Catabolism of which 6 things leads to the formation of propionic acid?

isoleucine
valine
threonin
methionine
cholesterol
oddchain fatty acids

14

What disease presents with symptoms close to Marfan syndrome including ectopic lentis and developmental delay?

Homocystinuria caused by cystathione esynthetase deficiency

15

What the three things are true of drugs with a high blood/gas partition coefficient?

MOA

Name a drug like this.

Higher solubility in blood
Demonstrates lower equilibration with the brain
Longer onset times

Blood saturates slowly leading to delayed rise in partial pressure = > slows brain saturation and increases onset time

Halothane

16

Which drug has a low blood/gas partition coefficient? What does this mean?

N2O-nitrous oxide

Blood saturates quickly leading to fast rise and partial pressure = >increased pressures speeds brain saturation decreasing onset time

17

What triadic companies normal pressure hydrocephalus?

Urinary incontinence
Ataxic gait
Dementia

Symmetric dilation of the ventricles

Wacky, wobbly, wet

18

MC brain lesions in HIV patients?

Toxoplasmosis
Primary CNS lymphoma

19

Primary CNS lymphoma in HIV patients is of what origin? What infection is strongly associated with this disease?

B – lymphocyte origin

Latent EBV infection

20

Ornithine transferred to the mitochondria is essential and the urea cycle, what causes neurological damage?

How would you prevent this?

What patient with this present in?

Ammonia buildup

Protein restriction

Infants

21

What three mutations and which genotype is associated with Alzheimer's disease?

A PP (chromosome 21)
presenilin1
presenillin2

Apolipoprotein E 4 genotype

22

What type of drug is buspirone?
What is a use for?
Which Side effects does it avoid ?

5 HT1A agonist

Generalized anxiety disorder

No hypnotic, sedative, euphoric effects

23

Cellular receptor of each virion:
Cytomegalovirus
Epstein bar virus
HIV
Rabies
Rhinovirus

Cytomegalovirus – cellular integrations
EBV – CR 2 (CD 21)
HIV – CD4 & CXCR/CCR 5
Rabies –Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor
Rhino –I CAM1 CD54)

24

Rhabdovirus how what cellular shape and type?

Symptoms?

Single-stranded RNA virus enveloped by a bullet shaped capsule which is studded by glycoprotein spikes that bind to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

Agitation, disorientation, pharyngeal spasm, photophobia leading to coma is suggested of rabies encephalitis

25

The infusion of glucose was outside mean in a alcoholic patient can cause what?

Encephalopathy

Confusion, ataxia, ophthalmoplegia, = triad of Warneke encephalopathy
bilateral mammillary body hemorrhages are also characteristic

26

Myoclonic seizure description?

First line therapy?

Breeze a rhythmic jerking


Valproic acid

27

Tonic clonic seizures description?

First-line drug of choice?

Generalized tonic extension of extremities followed by clonic rhythmic movements
Loss of consciousness
Prolonged Post ictal confusion

Phenytoin, carbamazepine, valproate

28

Absence seizures description?

First and second line therapies question

Brief episodes of staring no postictal confusion

First line: ethosuximide
Second line: valproate

29

Partial seizures:
Difference between simple and complex?

First-line therapies for each?

Simple: one body part involved, no LOC, no postictal confusion

Complex: temporal lobe involvement (mood changes, hallucinations)
Impaired consciousness
Postictal state president

Carbamazepine is first line for both

30

M OA of sodium valproate (valproic acid)? Used for?

Suppresses abnormal electric activity in cortex by affecting GABA and NMDA receptors as well as Na and K channels

Myoclonic seizures