Flashcards in Neuro Deck (139)
What occurs in the brain 3-5 days post ischemia/infarct?
Eventually what is seen in this area?
Micoglia (macrophage derivitiive) move to area and phagocytize fragments of neurons,myelin & decrotic debris.
cystic space replaces necrosis and astrocytes form glial scar around periphery
Deficient DNA-repair enzyme diseases: (5)
Ataxia-telangiectasia- DNA hypersensitivity to Ionizing radiation
Xeroderma pigmentosum- DNA hypersensitivity to UV radiation
Fanconi Anemia-DNA hypersensitivity to cross-linking agents
Bloom Syndrome - chromosomal instability
Hereditary nonplyposis colorectal cancer- defective DNA mismatch repair enzymes
Manifestations of ataxia telangectasia (4) ? and what is the disorder?
DNA hypersensitivity to IONIZING RADIATION
repeated sinopulmonary infections
increased incidence of malignancy
Anterior 2/3rds of the Tongue innervation:
General-Mandibular division of Trigeminal
Gustatory- chorda tympani of the facial nerve
Which nerve of tongue does post 1/3 or ROOT gustatory & sensory?
which tongue nerve transmits TASTE, Pain, temp, touch from post. 1/3
How does Infant hydrocephalus present?
long term effects?
incr. head circumference
lower extremity spasticity- stretch periventricular pyramidal tracts
Which drug is most commonly associated with Nueruoleptic Malignant syndrome?
which drugs treat this?
Haloperidol- due to antidopaminergic activity
Neuroleptic Malignant syndrome 4 features
difference from serotonin syndrome?
extreme generalized rigidity
altered mental status
Which drugs cause for serotonin syndrome
SSRI's + MAOIs combined
multiple ring enhancing lesions in an HIV pt?
What type of reaction defect is seen in methlmalonic acidemia?
isomerization of methlmalonyl coA to succinyl CoA
Catabolism of which 6 things leads to the formation of propionic acid?
oddchain fatty acids
What disease presents with symptoms close to Marfan syndrome including ectopic lentis and developmental delay?
Homocystinuria caused by cystathione esynthetase deficiency
What the three things are true of drugs with a high blood/gas partition coefficient?
Name a drug like this.
Higher solubility in blood
Demonstrates lower equilibration with the brain
Longer onset times
Blood saturates slowly leading to delayed rise in partial pressure = > slows brain saturation and increases onset time
Which drug has a low blood/gas partition coefficient? What does this mean?
Blood saturates quickly leading to fast rise and partial pressure = >increased pressures speeds brain saturation decreasing onset time
What triadic companies normal pressure hydrocephalus?
Symmetric dilation of the ventricles
Wacky, wobbly, wet
MC brain lesions in HIV patients?
Primary CNS lymphoma
Primary CNS lymphoma in HIV patients is of what origin? What infection is strongly associated with this disease?
B – lymphocyte origin
Latent EBV infection
Ornithine transferred to the mitochondria is essential and the urea cycle, what causes neurological damage?
How would you prevent this?
What patient with this present in?
What three mutations and which genotype is associated with Alzheimer's disease?
A PP (chromosome 21)
Apolipoprotein E 4 genotype
What type of drug is buspirone?
What is a use for?
Which Side effects does it avoid ?
5 HT1A agonist
Generalized anxiety disorder
No hypnotic, sedative, euphoric effects
Cellular receptor of each virion:
Epstein bar virus
Cytomegalovirus – cellular integrations
EBV – CR 2 (CD 21)
HIV – CD4 & CXCR/CCR 5
Rabies –Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor
Rhino –I CAM1 CD54)
Rhabdovirus how what cellular shape and type?
Single-stranded RNA virus enveloped by a bullet shaped capsule which is studded by glycoprotein spikes that bind to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor
Agitation, disorientation, pharyngeal spasm, photophobia leading to coma is suggested of rabies encephalitis
The infusion of glucose was outside mean in a alcoholic patient can cause what?
Confusion, ataxia, ophthalmoplegia, = triad of Warneke encephalopathy
bilateral mammillary body hemorrhages are also characteristic
Myoclonic seizure description?
First line therapy?
Breeze a rhythmic jerking
Tonic clonic seizures description?
First-line drug of choice?
Generalized tonic extension of extremities followed by clonic rhythmic movements
Loss of consciousness
Prolonged Post ictal confusion
Phenytoin, carbamazepine, valproate
Absence seizures description?
First and second line therapies question
Brief episodes of staring no postictal confusion
First line: ethosuximide
Second line: valproate
Difference between simple and complex?
First-line therapies for each?
Simple: one body part involved, no LOC, no postictal confusion
Complex: temporal lobe involvement (mood changes, hallucinations)
Postictal state president
Carbamazepine is first line for both