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Flashcards in GI Deck (155)
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1

Typical histological appearance of Celiac Sprue

flat jejunal mucosa with no vili

2

Stable retroperitoneal hematoma is most likely due to what structure?

pancreas (except the tail).

3

Retroperiotineal Structures?

Suprarenal gland
Abdominal aorta/IVC
Duodenum (part 2,3,4)
Pancreas (not tail)
Ureters
Colon (Asc/Desc)
Kidneys
Rectum

4

Which galactose metabolism is more severe and what is the enzyme associated with it?

Classic galactosemia; Galactose1phosphate uridyl transferase (GALT)

vomiting lethargy failure to thrive with feeding.

5

Deficiency in Galactokinase will give rise to what symptoms?
what enzyme is upregulated in this deficiency?

cataracts ; Aldose Reductase

6

Bilious vomiting first 24 hours of life =?

intestinal obstruction below second part of duodenum.

due to:
intestinal stenosis
atresia

7

Intraabdominal infections are usually caused by which 2 organisms? -classify them

E.Coli- Gram negative
B. Fragilis- Gram negative bacillus

also enterococci, streptococci

8

Best treatment for long term PUD therapy?

Antibiotics for h.pylori infection
(Metronidizole, tetracycline, amoxicillan, clarithromycin)

+ PPi/bizmuth for 14 days

9

How does sucralfate act?

binds to base of mucosal ulcers protecting against gastric acid. Allows for healing.

10

What drug has prokinetic and antiemetic proprties and is used to treat GI motility disorders like gastroparesis and and prevent nausea/ vomiting? what kind of drug is this?

Metoclipramide (dopamine anatagonist)

11

What is MIsoprostol and how is it used?

Prostaglandin E1 aalog used to prevent NSAID induced ulcer disease.

12

What binds oxaloacetate in the first step of the TCA (krebs) cycle to form citrate?

Pantothenic acid (co-enzyme A is active form)

13

RAS is activated by what to lead to Map kinase activation and eventually gene activation?

inactive GDP
RAS = ACTIVE with GTP => Raf=> Map Kinase => transcr. factor activation

14

Most common malignant hepatic lesion?

metastasis from another primary site

15

What is diffuse hepatic fibrosis with replacement of normal lobular architecture by fibrous-lined parenchymal nodules a sign of?

cirrhosis

16

Hindgut encompasses what 4 parts of the GI Tract? whats its blood supply?

distal 1/3 of transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid,, colon, and rectum.

IMA

17

does the Inferior mesenteric vein course with the IMA?

no

18

IgA protease is produced by which bacteria? where does it act on IgA?

Meningitidis species
Hinge Region

19

How does IgA protease aid bacterial invasion?

cleases IgA protease at hinge region and cannot bind and inhibit the action of pili or fimbriae to mucosal adherenc and penetration

20

which bacteria use inhibiion of phago-lysozomal fusion to evade host?

M. tuberculosis
M. leprae
Legionella
Ehrlichia

21

which evasion mechanism impairs opsonization and phagocytosis? which bugs do this?

capsule formation
S. pneumoniae
N. meningitidis
H. flu
Cryptococcus neoformans

22

Which hepatitis has a anticteric (subclinical) infection?

Hepatitis A

23

What test would you use to determine whether an elevated Alk Phos is of hepatic or bony origin?

y-glutamyl transpeptidase is predominat in hepatocytes andbiliary epithelia

24

Why do anti-HepC antibodies not give the host an effective immune response?

remarkable variety in the antigenic structure of hepC virus ENVELOPE proteins

25

5 proteins that can bbind DNA

transcription factors
steroids
thyroid proteins
Vitamin D receptors
retinoic acid receptors
MYC proteins (transc. factors)

26

Describe Conn's syndrome + 3 symptoms

aldosterone secreting tumor (adenoma) leading to
PRIMARY HYPERadlosteronism

-hypokalemia, met. alkalosis, decr. plasma renin activity

27

what is an opiate antidiarrheal like meperidine? what receptors does it bind to?

Diphenoxylate; mu-opiate receptors=> slow motility

28

What drug is used for secretory diarrhea?

Ocreotide

29

Which cofactor is necessary for synthesis of delta-aminolevulinic acid? what disease is this d-aminolevulinic acid elevated in?

pyridoxal phosphate
lead poisoning

30

What mechanisms and triggers are in the cephalic phase of digestion

vagal and cholinergic mechanisms
thought of, smell, sight of food