Flashcards in Endo/Repro Deck (92)
Tumors in 3Ps
Parathyroid - where is this also seen?
medullary carcinoma thyroid- MEN 2
Pheochromocytoma- MEN 2
Parathyroid Tumor- also seen in?
medullary carcinoma of thyroid- MEN 2
pheochromocytoma- MEN 2
MUCOSAL NEUROMA- 2B ONLY
Pheochromocytomas? Seen in which disease? act where and do what?
MEN 2 A & B
adrenal medulla and secrete catecholamines
Symptoms of Graves Disease? (2 unique + many others)
which ones are NOT alleviated by b-blocker therapy?
1) Pretibial myxedema - orangepeel/scaly skin
2) Opthalmia is NOT ALLEVIATED =(exopthalmos,
periorbital edema, eye movement limitations)
Palpations,nervousness,easy fatigability, fine tremor, diarrhea, hyperhidrosis, heat intolerance, weight loss, hyperreflexia
PPAR-Y regulates which 4 genes?
Fatty Acid Transport protein
Insulin receptor substrate
P=administration of cortisol allows epinephrine to achieve its full vasoconstrictive potential
A= combined effects equal the sum
S= combined effects EXCEEDS the sum of the individual drug effects
Subperiosteal thinning is characteristic of?
how does this manifest clinically?
subperiosteal erosions of medial phalanges
SALT & PEPPER appearance of calvarium
What prevents lactation during pregnancy?
high levels of circulationg estrogen and progesterone
What would be seen in primary amenorrhea in Mullerian agenesis v Turners Syndrome?
Mullerian agenesis = FULLY DEVELOPED SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERISTICS
DATING ERROR; NTDefects, Anterior wall defects (Ophalocele, gastroschsis) multiple gestation
Decreased Estriol levels in pregnancy are a sign of what?
hCG is increased in what? (3)
What inhibits GnRH?
Inhibiting GnRH decreases which hormones? (2)
These 2 hormones affect which cells and have what feedback inhibition?
FSH=> SERTOLI => Inhibin B feedback inhibition
LH=> LEYDIG CELLS=> Testosterone => feeback inhibition of LH & GnRH
GIGANTISM v Acromegaly
excess GH before closure of epiphysis V. after closure of epiphysis
IGF-1 from where affects linear growth?
Liver (not hypothalamus= central nervous activity
Diagnose a Pt. with high Serum GH but low IGF-1 levels? MOA?
Defective GH Receptors
Glucocorticoids are catabolic causing what? (5)
What do they increase?
impaired wound healing
Liver protein synthesis = INCR. Gluconeogenesis & glycogenolysis => hyperglycemia (+peripheral antagonism of insulin)
Long Term Glucocorticoid Therapy (>3weeks) can cause what?
Under stressful conditions what can happen during this therapy regimen and how do you prevent this?
HPA (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal) axis supression = DECR. CRH ACTH & Cortisol
Adrenal crisis may occur under stress (infxns/surgery) if an appropriate increase in Glucocorticoids is not given.
Adenexal mass in elderly female?
serum marker for this?
Within the cell where would ACTH biosynthesis occur?
Which cells of the body would have this portion well developed
steroids are synthesized in the SER
Adrenals, gonads, liver (steroid producers)
What type of anion gap change would you expect in Septic shock and why?
what other condition my cause a similar anion gap change and why?
Lactic Acid Metabolic Acidosis Increases Anion Gap in Septic shock
due to impaired tissue oxygenation => Decr. Ox.Phos. => shunt pyruvate to lactate after glycolysis
Hepatic Hypoperfusion/Failure => lactic acid buildup (liver = site of lactate clearance)
Aspiration Pneumonia risk factors?
Altered consciousness (cough reflex& glottis fxn impairment) = dementia.
Dysphagia (neurological complications)
Mechanical Comprimise (NG/Endotracheal Tubes)
Think of an OLD man with GERD/Strokes/Dementia/and Tubes that give him Pneumonia
Hyperprolactinemia in women can cause?
Estrogen Deficiency => (hypogonadism SE)
Decr. Bone densitiy
What are the Endocrine Side effects of SPIRINOLACTONE?
Drugs used to treat hirsutism?
Antiandrogens flutamide (inhibits binding to testosterone receptors)
Finasteride (5-alpha-reductase inhibitor)
Rare life threatening complication of antithyroid medications? What test is used to determine if present?
Agranulocytosis (absolute neutrophil count of less than 500/mL)
WBC count with a differential
Maternal rubella infection (symptoms in mom?) and sympotms in child
post. auricular and suboccipital lymphadenopathy
rash from Trunk to periphery (feet)
What types of receptors utilize MAP-Kinase signaling pathway? describe this pathway?
Growth Factors (EGF PDGF FGF)
Receptor auto phosphorylates and triggers phosphorylation of Ras protein