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Flashcards in Ecology Deck (18):

Describe Shaw and Mckays Chicago school study

Observed and he lived in inner-city area= zone of transition
immigrants + family living on low income + high levels of people moving in and out

despite the high population change high levels of crime is maintained


What is the result of a high population turnover

Social disorganisation of you coming to relationships low levels of informal agents of social control


Evaluation for Chicago school

✔️ follows the patterns of crime most crime is recorded here
✔️informed the distribution of formal social control by location e.g. lots of police in areas of high levels of social disorganisation
❌ Sees the population as deterministic and passive


Explain Morris "the criminal area"

Croyden 1957

Crime rates are highest in council estates because the council deliberately have a council policy to place all of the problem families together which increased crime


What are the problems Morris has against Chicago school

❌ It is not because of the area it is in council estates
❌ Chicago schools concept of social disorganisation
- poor family are more socially integrated then middle-class
- high levels of divorce and unemployment does not equate to social disorganisation


Who presented the tipping theory

Baldwin and Bottom


What is the tipping theory

1⃣ tenants refuse to accept housing on problems estates
2⃣ so the estates get filled up with people who have been in trouble with the law
= tipping the estate into lawlessness
3⃣ law binding residents do not want to live here


Which estates do the tipping theory focus on

Gardenia - 300% high number of offences
stonewall - 350% higher


Example of more opportunities of crime in city ares

1. Higher density population means more chance of robbery
2. More young people living in urban areas


What did gill look at

Areas of Liverpool and negatively labelled ====== increased levels of policing and self-fulfilling prophecy residents == tough self image


Why does Gills labeling study occur

Council created a negative stereotype reputation of the area also create delinquency
media causes area to look dodgy

= blocked opportunity


Who presents the opportunity theory



Crime is most likely to happen in criminal areas, why??


Attraction - how much will and individual gain from the crime

Assessability - how easy is it to commit crime


What does Marxism say

Council do this so the working class are easy to military police
creates fear of crime
working class are further oppressed and marginalised by ruling class society


What does cloward and ohlin say about Shaw and Mckay?

They agree but say that criminal role models only occur in established ares which is in their zone 3 and 2


What does skogan say?

- explored the concept of tipping

- social fabric of neighbourhoods is held together by informal social control;

stops people littering because neighbours will disprove


Types of skogan disorder

1. Physical deterioration - litter, empty buildings

2. Social disorder - public drinking


Consequences of skogans types of disorders?

1. Loss of informal control mechanisms
2. Rising concerns
3. Undermines the housing market