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Flashcards in Ethnicity Deck (31):

White victim versus white offenders

88% of crime


Black victims versus black offenders

94% crime


Asian victims versus Asian offenders

19% of crime


What do bowling & phillips say about victimisation studies?

1⃣When defender is not known why people out more likely to assume it is a Afro-Caribbean person
2⃣ victim studies are influenced by stereotypes defenders are culturally determined = socially constructed do not give a valid picture of crime


Self-report studies

Graham and bowling
self offending rates are more or less the same for all race respondent


What does sharp and budd say about self report studies?

Alright and mix and more likely to report crime 40% black are 28% likely to report crime
Asian at 21% likely

❌ hindelang - black are less likely to report because they are pervious ofdenders


How more likely are blacks stopped and searched than white

Seven times more likely Asians are twice as more likely


What is reasonable suspicion

Please can stop and search if they have reasonable suspicion of wrongdoing however under the terrorism act of 2000 they can do this without reasonable suspicion

= asians become 3x more likeky


What does bowling and Philip say

Ethnic minorities feel that they are over please and under protected


Why do you ethnic minority is feel over police and under protected

Institutional racism
- many police officers have negative views about ethnic minority is maybe the reasons differences of offending in ethnic minority
Eg; if you working-class and a ethnic minority you are more likely to be stopped


What happened to the arrest rates in 2006?

Blacks with 3.6 times more likely to be arrested then white

Because ethnic minority are more likely to deny that act so cannot be caution


What is the percentage of blacks in prison

2.8% and only 11% in the population


Why is there 2.8% of blacks in person?

1⃣ more serious offences
2⃣ hood found black males are more likely to receive a higher sentence then white/ Asians


Why is the CPS more likely to drop ethnic minority cases and find that minorities less guilty

Bowling and Philip say there is weak evidence because their case is down to stereotyping


What does the new criminologist Taylor at L say

Crimes are deliberate and conscious political acts


What does Gilroy and hall at L say

1⃣Police racism creates these stats ❌ he says black commit crimes due to the anticolanal struggle
2⃣ moral panics racism and oppressive policies construct statistics


What does victimisation study show?

Majority of crime is intra radical


Interactionism gives further evidence for social construction of black crime statistics

Becker- says police label black as criminals which means they target them more
❌goulden - this is simply a sociology of the underdog


Police canteen culture

Skolnick - canteen culture is a result of working values develops as a result of policing
😴 tends to see offended as young male and a


What does reiner say about canteen culture

The main values racism conversation, machoness and public isolation


What does Smith better say about canteen culture

Racist views from police results in more ethnic minority stopping and searching


What does that MacPherson enquiry show

Policework institutionally racist meaning that statistics are not valid


Why could ethnic minority is be committing crime

😁Demographic reasons; Young males commit the most crime ethnic minority is have high number of young males=more crime
😁Economic reasons; poverty results in crime class maybe more important then ethnicity
😁 differences in offending;
Ethnic minority is crime and more visible


What does craine say about the Black magic roundabout

On a carousel of unemployment training schemes and low wage jobs

✔️ merton ; socialised into consumerism but cannot achieve legitimately
❌ stevens et al - this does not explain the higher arrests of blacks


Functionalists a statistics are valid

Ethnic minority is more likely to have a low income and poor housing conditions resulting in a crime


How do you phillip and brown support functionalism

They studied 10 police station found ethnic minority is are more likely to be arrested however there was no evidence of them being treated differently during arest


What does Bourgois say?

Economic exclusion plus negative social attitudes equals alternative economy
✔️ cloward & ohlin "illegitimate opportunities"


Example of alternative economy

Kerb side car repair to sell crack cocaine


What does Murray say

Ethnic minority is a part of the underclass 50% of Afro-Caribbean family is a single parent families

❌Marxism - does not solve inequality ❌Cashmore- quality over quantity


What is the triple quandary theory?


anxiety In Caribbean youth results in crime
💔 cannot deal with mainstream society e.g. teachers in pliers as they are against their views
💔 feel rejected by white racist society
😭 lack of material bconsumption and positive male role model

😢😢 results in hyper masculine behaviour to gain status


Evaluation points for the triple quandary theory

The new right says this ignores rational choice simply blames cultural views
New left realism what about poverty impact