Flashcards in Gender Deck (33):
What percentage of women take up the prison population
Who are we more likely to be victim to?
Men = strangers
Women = victim by their present or ex partners
Evaluation of official statistics
❌ technology affects our ability to report and record crime = hard to say weather crime has gone up or down
❌ increase of women committing petty crime - statistics may be out of date
How many people were found guilty or were cautioned?
11% under 18
How does Heidensohn explain low women crime rates?
Patriarchal society controls woment more
So they conform, reducing their opportunities to offend
+ women have more to lose if they deviate
How does control occur?
1⃣ in the home
- responsibilities means women have less time to commit crime
- more consequences if they do eg lose of child
- feel of physical violence if they go out at night alone
- sexual harrasment at work = restricted opportunities to deviate
3⃣ lose of reputation
- getting labels such as slag = lack of femininity
What is carlens rational choice theory?
✌🏽️ interview 39 working class women who had committed a range of offences - appeared to be a rational choice
👀 low paid job = not the lifestyle they hoped for
👀 family life as a child and as an adult = happy + unfulfilling
Gender deal and economic deal = commit crime to provide for their children/to survive
Evaluation for carlen?
✔️ suggests conformity
✔️ new left - relative deprivation
❌ both show external factors lead to women crime - ignored free will
What do functionalism say about the sex role theory?
Boys and girls are socialised differently
- boys are more likely to become delinquent
What does sutherland say?
Social control makes girls more closely supervised and have greater constrains
Boys are more likely to be encouraged to take risks, to be tough and aggressive
What does parsons say?
Biological differences mean women take on a nurturing, caring rile
- rather than aggressive ones that is found in males
// which results in antisocial behaviour and delinquency
❌ marxists - this fails to notice the differences in power
What is the chivalry theory?
Women being treated more leniently
- police may be more likly to give a caution than charge
- couets are more inclined to give a lenient sentence
What is the evidence for the chivalry theory?
Pollack, 1950 - men have a protective attitude to women and police/courts dislike to accuse or punish women
Hood - compared the sentencing of men and women, men were more likely to receive a custodial sentence than women
// women are more likely to admit it
How does campbell show evidence for the chivalry theory?
self report studies
1⃣ female are more likely to be cautioned
2⃣ 1.33 to 1, make to female for juvenile crime - rather than 9:1 as official statistics say
What evidence does box give that goes against the chivalry theory?
Reviewed self report studies in Britain and the USA
Official statistics are fairly accurate
What evidence does walklate give that goes against the chivalry theory?
CJS is patriarchal, wonen are more likely to be on trial
What evidence does buckle and Farrington give that goes against the chivalry theory?
Smaller % of women observed shoplifting
Female and male have similar figures
"Women do not get away with it"
What evidence does heidensohn give that goes against the chivalry theory?
Females are more harshly treated to break the stereotype and double standards
What evidence does carlen give that goes against the chivalry theory?
CJS hands out sentences to women based on if they have stuck ti the norms an values
What evidence does dobash and dobash give that goes against the chivalry theory?
In domestic violence cases male officer were highly unlikely to make an arrest, regarding many incidents as "just a domestic"
How has female criminality grown?
1957 - men were responsible for 11x as many offences as women
2008 - 4:1 men:women
😐 number of crimes committed by girls went up by 25% from 2004 to 2007
How does alder explain the growth of crime?
Womens increasing independence and weakening traditional forms of social control = more opportunity and less gender stereotype constrain
= more female crime
How does denscomb explain the growth of crime?
- young women adopting behaviour traditionally associated with young men
- binge drinking, gang culture, risk taking
Evaluation of denscomb and alder?
❌ heidsohn - studies which found females tend to score highly in psychological tests exploring feminity
❌ female crime rode before womens liberation
❌ working class women are more likly to commit crime, womens independence has influenced the middle class more
❌ liberation does not apply to all cultures and religions
What does postmodernist Carol smart say?
Rejects that there is one idea to explain crime - there are a multiple of reasons
The idea that women are affected by crime ignores the variety of female identities
A high crime rate society affects women in a variety of ways
Why do men commit crime?
Hegemonic + subordinate masculinity
1⃣ real man is high values
- achieve this by their access to poo
- through their job or subordination of women
2⃣ some can't/dont want to accomplish this dominant form - subordinated masculinity = street crime to achieve
Evaluation of messerchmidt
❌ only a minority of men feel the need to asset their masculinity through crime
❌ collier - stretches the explanatory power of the concept of masculinity too far
❌ postmodernism - reject grand narrative, masculinity is more complex
What does winlow say about the crises of masculinity and macho subcultures
🐤 decline of manual jobs and expansion of the service sector = men express their masculinity in night time leisure
1⃣ studied sunderland bouncers
😐 demonstrated their masculinity through violence = status of hard man
🌾 used body to maintain their reputation
Part two of winlow
Expression of masculinity changes as society changes
✔️ highlights power of patriarchal society
What does collinson say?
When the traditional ways of breadwinning is denied males may compensate for this through the use all aggressive masculinity
Evaluation of Collinson?
❌ there are alternative ways to compensate
Eg. The middle class use rugby
What does lying say?
Gain pleasure through risk taking and provide status amongst their male peers
- enhancing their masculinity
✔️ katz - the thrill of crime