Ecosystems And Tropic Levels - Part 1 (T4) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ecosystems And Tropic Levels - Part 1 (T4) Deck (13):
0

No matter its size, what four components will an ecosystem generally have?

- producers: plants which photosynthesise and produce their own food
- consumers: animals that eat the plants or other animals
- decomposers: organisms which are responsible for the decay of dead material and so help to recycle nutrients
- physical environment: the total of the non-biological components of the ecosystem, for example in a pond this would be the water and soil while in the forest it would be the soil and air

1

What is an ecosystem?

- an ecosystem is made up of all the living and non-living things in an area, for example farms and woods
- it is a distinct, self supporting system of organisms interacting with each other and with their physical environment
- it can be small in size, like a pond, or large like a swamp or a large forest

2

In each ecosystem a a range of habitats. What are these and give some examples...

- habitats are places where specific organisms live
- some are provided by the physical environment, for example in a pond the habitat of many of the plants is provided by the soil at the bottom of the pond and by the water
- other habitats are provided by the organisms themselves, for example dead vegetation provides a habitat for many decomposers

3

All of the organisms of a particular species found in an ecosystem at any one time are known as the what?

The population of that species

4

The populations of all the different species in an ecosystem are known as what?

A community

5

How would an ecologist calculate how many organisms are present in a particular habitat?

The ecologist would count and analyse a representative part of the population, known as a sample

6

What is a quadrat and how is it used?

- a simple piece of equipment that can be used by ecologists to gather a sample of plants of animals in an ecosystem
- it is usually made of metal, wood or plastic
- the suitable size depends on the size of the organisms being sampled
- the sampling must be random in order to provide a representative sample of the area

7

Explain how organisms in an ecosystem continually interact with each other...

- feeding amongst organisms: plants, animals and decomposers are continually recycling the same nutrients through the ecosystem
- competition amongst organisms: animals compete for food, shelter, mates and nesting sites while plants compete for nutrients such as carbon dioxide, minerals and water
- numerous interactions between organisms and the environment: plants absorb minerals, carbon dioxide and water while returning water vapour and oxygen, and animals use materials from their environment to build shelters
- the temperature of the environment can also affect the processes occurring in organisms which can in turn affect the temperature of the environment as organisms release heat

8

What organism does a food chain always start with?

A green plant (a producer)

9

In a food chain, what is the animal that eats the producer called?

The primary consumer

10

In a food chain, what is the animal that eats the animal that eats the producer called?

The secondary consumer

11

What are the different stages in a food chain (eg: producer, primary consumer etc.) known as?

Tropic levels

13

Describe a food chain that ends with salmon as the tertiary consumer...

Filamentous algae > mayfly nymph > caddis fly larvae > salmon

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