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Flashcards in The Heart (T2) Deck (32):
0

What are the three main components of the human cardiovascular system?

- the heart
- the blood
- the blood vessels

1

What is the average size and weight of an adult human heart?

It is around the size of a clenched fist and weighs 300g

2

What is the average adult human heart rate?

70-75 bpm

3

How is the human heart divided into chambers?

The heart is divided into chambers - two up and two down. The top chambers are called the atria and the bottom chambers are the ventricles.

4

How are the top and bottom chambers of the human heart separated?

By valves

5

What is the name of the valve separating the right atrium and the right ventricle?

The tricuspid valve

6

What is the name of the valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle?

The bicuspid valve

7

What is the collective name of the tricuspid and bicuspid valves?

The atrioventricular valves

8

What is the name of the blood vessels arriving at the heart?

The veins

9

What is the name of the blood vessels leaving the heart?

The arteries

10

What are the blood vessels entering the right atrium called?

The superior and inferior vena cavae

11

What is the blood vessel that leaves the right ventricle?

The pulmonary artery

12

What are the blood vessels that enter the left atrium called?

The pulmonary veins

13

How many pulmonary veins are there entering the left atrium?

4

14

What is the name of the blood vessel that leaves the left ventricle?

The aorta

15

What is the collective name of the valves at the base of the aorta and pulmonary arteries?

The semi-lunar valves

16

Which side of the heart contains deoxygenated blood?

The right side

17

Which side of the heart contains oxygenated blood?

The left side

18

What does double circulation in the human heart mean?

Blood flows through the heart twice; pulmonary circulation is the movement of the blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart, whilst systematic circulation if the supply of blood from the heart to all the other tissues in the body.

19

What is pulmonary circulation?

The movement of the blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart

20

What is systematic circulation?

The supply of blood from the heart to all the other tissues in the body.

21

Do veins carry oxygenated or deoxygenated blood, and what is the exception to this rule?

Veins only carry deoxygenated blood EXCEPT the pulmonary vein.

22

What does the pulmonary vein do?

It takes oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left side of the heart, to be pumped around the rest of the body.

23

Do arteries carry oxygenated or deoxygenated blood, and what is the exception to this rule?

Arteries only carry oxygenated blood EXCEPT the pulmonary artery.

24

What does the pulmonary artery do?

The pulmonary artery takes deoxygenated blood to the lungs.

25

Describe the process of blood flow into and out of the heart...

- blood returns to the right atrium, deoxygenated.
- the right ventricle pumps this blood along the pulmonary artery to the lungs to be oxygenated.
- the oxygenated blood enters the left side of the heart and is pumped out of the aorta to the rest of the body, except the lungs.
- when it reaches the capillaries around the body, oxygen diffuses to the surrounding cells.
- the deoxygenated blood is then carried back to the heart in the veins.
- these join up to form the superior and inferior vena cavae, which are the largest veins in the body.

26

What do you call one complete heart beat?

A cardiac cycle.

27

Define the cardiac cycle in one sentence.

The cardiac cycle is a combination of relaxations (diastole) and contractions (systole) of the heart chambers that occur in sequence.

28

What is the average time for a cardiac cycle in an adult?

Around 0.8s

29

What is the systolic phase (systole) ?

When the ventricles and atria contract.

30

What is the diastolic phase (diastole) ?

The period between contractions, when the ventricles relax and fill with blood.

31

Describe the stages of the cardiac cycle...

RELAXATION (diastole)
- the atria and ventricles are relaxed
- the atrioventricular and semi-lunar valves remain closed
- the ventricle's volume remains unchanged

RAPID FILLING (diastole)
- the AV valves open
- blood fills both ventricles from their respective atria

SLOWER FILLING (systole)
- the atria contract and force the remaining blood from the atria into the ventricles

CONTRACTION (systole)
- the ventricles contract
- the AV valves are forced shut and for a brief moment the semi-lunar valves are also closed
- the continuing contraction of the ventricles increases the pressure in the ventricles and forces the semi-lunar valves open
- blood is forced out of the ventricles
- blood leaves the right ventricle via the pulmonary artery to the lungs and leave the left ventricle via the aorta to all the other body regions

RELAXATION (diastole)
- the ventricles begin to relax
- blood in the aorta and pulmonary trunk begins to flow backwards, causing the semi-lunar valves to close
- the pulmonary trunk divides into arteries that carry deoxygenated blood to the lungs
- the aorta will carry oxygenated blood to the rest of the body
- the closing of the semi-lunar valves causes a small boost in blood pressure


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