Flashcards in Genetic Engineering (T5) Deck (4):
Describe the stages involved in the production of the hormone insulin, by process of genetic engineering...
- select human cells that contain genes for insulin
- remove from the cell the relative section of the chromosome that contains the genes for insulin
- the gene which codes for insulin is cut from the chromosome using specialised enzymes called 'restriction endonuclease enzymes'
- a bacterial cell is selected, containing DNA in the form of circular plasmids
- the plasmids are extracted from the bacterial cell and used as vectors to introduce the gene for insulin into the bacterial cell
- plasmids are then cut open using the same 'restriction endonuclease enzymes'
- the human insulin gene is then inserted into the cut region of the plasmids using another specialised enzyme called a ligase enzyme
- this DNA is now described as a recombinant DNA
- plasmid containing the recombined DNA is reinserted back into the bacterial cell
- the bacterial cell is allowed to reproduce in a fermenter
- all the bacterial cells produced contain the plasmids with the human insulin gene
What is the genetic engineering of human insulin useful for?
For people with diabetes as it provides insulin, allowing them to control blood sugar levels
What are 'restriction endonuclease enzymes' and what is their nickname?
They are specialised enzymes which can 'cut' genes from chromosomes and cut plasmids.
Also known as 'genetic scissors'.