Flashcards in Smoking - Part 2 (T2) Deck (11):
Describe the dangers of carbon monoxide in tobacco smoke...
- carbon monoxide binds to the haemoglobin in the blood stream and prevents it from carrying enough oxygen around the body
- the heart needs to beat faster to supply the body with all it needs
- eventually this can lead to a lung disease called COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)
What are oxidant gases and what makes them dangerous in tobacco smoke?
- they are gases that react with oxygen
- they can make blood more likely to clot
What are the dangers of benzene in tobacco smoke?
- used to be added to petrol but this was stopped due to health concerns
- exposure can cause cell damage at the genetic level
- it has been linked to a range of cancers
Explain the relationship between smoking and nicotine...
Nicotine stimulates the production of adrenaline which increases heart rate, raising blood pressure and increasing the workload of the heart
A man who has smoked all his life has a ..... chance of lung cancer by the time he is 75. For a man who stops at 50 he has a ..... chance and only a ..... chance if he stops at 40...
A man who has smoked all his life has a 15.9% chance of lung cancer by the time he is 75. For a man who stops at 50 he has a 6% chance and only a 3% chance if he stops at 40...
Briefly, how can smoking cause heart disease?
- smoking damages the lining of your arteries
- some particles in smoke help 'bad cholesterol' in the blood stick to blood vessels
- this leads to a build up of fatty material known as atheroma, which makes the arteries narrower
- this can lead to angina, heart attack or stroke
Describe how smoking makes you age faster physically...
- smoking changes skin, teeth and hair
- a lack of oxygen and other nutrients reaching the skin damages the collagen and elastin, making skin look saggy and giving it an uneven colouring
How can smoking affect sight?
- smoking doubles the chances of sight loss
- tobacco smoke damages the tissues of the eye and increases the risk of AMD (age-related macular degeneration)
- smoking has also been linked to cataracts
How can smoking affect oral health?
- yellow teeth
- gum disease
- bad breath
How can smoking affect asthma?
- irritating substances settle in the moist lining of the airways, which can cause an attack in someone who has asthma
- smoking could permanently damage the airways and block the benefits of asthma medication