Electrotherapy and Pain Modulation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Electrotherapy and Pain Modulation Deck (113)
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1

What are the levels of physiologic response (4)

1. Cellular
2. Tissue
3. Segmental
4. Systemic

2

What are the cellular level responses to electrotherapy (5)

1. Excitation of excitable cell membranes
2. Changes in cell membrane permeability
3. Protein synthesis
4. Stimulation of fibroblasts and osteoblasts
5. Modification of microcirculation

3

What cell membranes are excited by electrotherapy (2)

1. Nerve
2. Muscle

4

What are the tissue level responses to electrotherapy (3)

1. Skeletal muscle contraction
2. Smooth muscle contraction
3. Tissue regeneration

5

True or False:
Tissue level responses to electrotherapy require multiple cellular events

True

6

What are the segmental level responses to electrotherapy (5)

1. Modification of joint mobility
2. Modification of muscle contractility
3. Muscle pumping action to change circulation and lymphatic drainage
4. An alteration of microvasculature not associated with muscle pumping
5. Increased movement of charged proteins into lymphatics resulting in fluid moving centrally

7

What are the systemic response to electrotherapy (3)

1. Analgesic effects as endogenous pain suppressors are released
2. Analgesic effects from the stimulation of certain neurotransmitters
3. Stimulate spinal gate

8

What are the effects of electrical stimulation (3)

1. Nerve depolarization
2. Muscle depolarization
3. Ionic effects

9

What has a slightly higher resting membrane potential nerves or muscles

Muscles

10

True or False:
The membrane of cells has differential permeability to different electrically charged ions

True

11

Is K+ easily or slightly permeable to the membrane

Easily permeable

12

Is Na+ easily or slightly permeable to the membrane

Slightly permeable

13

True or False:
The membrane is impermeable to large negatively charged protein and phosphates (anions)

True

14

True or False:
There are a large number of anions trapped inside the cell

True

15

True or False:
Depolarizing something in the middle will cause depolarization on both directions

True

16

Which way does the Na+/K+ pump move Na+ and K+ in relation to the cell

Na+ out
K+ in

17

Where is Na+ in higher concentration

Fluid surrounding the cell

18

Where is K+ and anions in higher concentration

Inside the cells

19

What is the resting membrane potential for muscle

-90 mV

20

What is the resting membrane potential for peripheral nerves

-70 mV

21

What maintains the negative resting membrane potential

The Na+/K+ pump moving 3 Na+ out and 2 K+ in resulting in a negative charge

22

True or False:
Larger diameter nerve fibers conduct the action potential faster

True

23

How fast do A alpha motor nerves carry APs

60-120 m/sec

24

How fast do A gamma and A delta nerves carry APs

12-30 m/sec

25

True or False:
Myelin makes the AP conduct faster

True

26

What is the AP jumping from node to node called

Saltatory conduction

27

True or False:
Most nerves in humans are mixed nerves leading to different nerve fibers firing at different rates

True

28

Where is the cell body and axon located in motor nerves

Cell body: Ventral horn or brainstem motor nuclei
Axon: Terminate on muscle

29

Where is the cell body and axon located in sensory nerves

Cell body: Dorsal root ganglion or cranial nerves sensory nuclei
Axon: 50% end as free nerve endings and 50% are specialized sensory receptors

30

What are the A alpha nerve diameter, conduction velocity, and type of nerve fiber (3)

1. 12-20, 72-120, Muscle spindle primary afferent
2. 12-20, 72-120, Golgi tendon organ afferent
3. 12-20, 72-120, Skeletal muscle efferent