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Flashcards in Diathermy Deck (86):
1

What does diathermy mean

Through Heat

2

What is diathermy

High frequency modality emitting electromagnetic energy

3

What are the type of diathermy (3)

1. Shortwave
2. Microwave
3. Longwave

4

What are the types of shortwave diathermy (2)

1. Continuous
2. Pulsed

5

Is longwave diathermy still used today

No

6

What is the most common frequency and wavelength of longwave diathermy

1 MHz, 300m

7

What is the most common frequency and wavelength of shortwave diathermy

27.12 MHz, 11m

8

What is the most common wave length of microwave diathermy

2450 MHz, 0.12m

9

Who regulates shortwave diathermy

FCC

10

What spectrum is shortwave diathermy in

Shortwave radio spectrum

11

What does shortwave diathermy mainly form

Magnetic fields in tissue

12

What does microwave diathermy mainly form

Electric fields in tissue

13

Why is microwave diathermy rarely used anymore (6)

1. Metal in vicinity
2. Skin burning
3. Overheating of superficial tissue
4. Increased reflection at tissue interfaces
5. Loss of energy to surrounding environment
6. Hot spots

14

Does shortwave diathermy use high or low frequency EMW to heat tissue

High frequency

15

What is shortwave diathermy in very basic terms

A radio transmitter

16

What are the available frequencies and wavelengths for shortwave diathermy (3)

1. 27.12 MHz, 11 m
2. 13.56 MHz, 22 m
3. 40.68 MHz, 7.5 m

17

Of the 3 available frequencies and wavelengths which one is rarely used

40.68 MHz, 7.5 m

18

The patient acts as what during shortwave diathermy

Radio receiver

19

True or False:
During shortwave diathermy the patient is "tuned in" as part of the circuit allowing for transfer of energy to the patient

True

20

When is current flow the greatest and example

In tissues with the least resistance like fat

21

When is the current absorption greatest and examples

In tissues with low impedance like muscle or blood

22

What was continuous shortwave diathermy used to treat in the 1930s

Infection

23

Is continuous shortwave diathermy used to treat infection today

It is used with caution due to rapid and vigorous heating of tissue

24

What is pulsed shortwave diathermy (PSWD) used for

Creating thermal and non-thermal effects

25

What does a wider pulse width mean

There is more energy generated to the tissue

26

What is pulse width measured in and the range

usec from 20-400

27

What happens when the pulse rate is greater

The amount of energy produce and transmitted into the tissue is greater

28

What is pulse rate measured in

Hz

29

What are the temperature sensations for PSWD (4)

1. Non thermal
2. Mild warmth
3. Moderate warmth
4. Vigorous heating

30

What are indications for non thermal PSWD (4)

Acute trauma, noticeable inflammation, edema reduction, and cell repolarization and repair

31

What are the indications for mild warmth PSWD (1)

Subactue inflammation

32

What are the indications for moderate warmth PSWD (3)

Pain reduction, muscle spasm, and chronic inflammation

33

What are the indications for vigorous heating PSWD (1)

Stretching collagen rich tissues

34

What are the pulse width and rate for non thermal PSWD

PW: 65 usec
PR: 100-200 pps

35

What are the pulse width and rate and average watts for mild heating PSWD

PW: 100 or 200 usec
PR: 400 or 800 pps
Watts: 12

36

What are the pulse width and rate and average watts for moderate heating PSWD

PW: 200 or 400 usec
PR: 400 or 800 pps
Watts: 24

37

What are the pulse width and rate and average watts for vigorous heating PSWD

PW: 400 usec
PR: 800 pps
Watts: 48

38

What is ionic oscillation

Charged particles oscillate producing kinetic energy

39

What charged particles are used in ionic oscillation (3)

Na+, K+, and Cl-

40

What is dipole rotation

Dipolar or water molecules (H+ and O-) rotate and produce kinetic energy

41

What are the physiologic effects of thermal diathermy (8)

1. Increase local metabolism
2. Local vasodilation
3. Muscle relaxation
4. Sedation of sensory nerve endings
5. Increased local perspiration
6. Increased collagen extensibility
7. Increased nerve growth and repair
8. Increased body temp, pulse rate, and decreased BP

42

What are the physiologic effects of non thermal diathermy (7)

1. Repolarization of damaged cells
2. Regularization of cell growth
3. Reestablishment of the Na+ pump
4. Increased microvascular perfusion
5. Improved cell function
6. Increased white cells in wound
7. Altered cell membrane function and cellular activity

43

What are the clinical indications for the use of PSWD (5)

1. Control of pain and edema
2. Pain control
3. Wound healing
4. Nerve healing
5. Bone healing

44

What are the indications for the use of diarthermy (4)

1. Impairments associated with sub acute and chronic conditions
2. Tissue contractures/adhesions
3. Joint stiffness
4. Stimulation of perspiration to improve electrical conductivity prior to E-Stim

45

What are the contraindications for diathermy (11)

1. Acute injuries
2. Patients who tend to hemorrhage
3. Malignancy
4. Fever
5. Over eyes
6. Over ischemic tissue
7. Cardiac disease
8. Pregnancy
9. Over epiphyseal plates in adolescents
10. Metal in treatment area
11. Pacemaker

46

What are the advantages to diathermy (5)

1. Tissue can't tolerate weight of a hot pack
2. Can reach deeper tissues
3. Can cause mild rise in temperature of deep tissue
4. Can treat a larger area
5. Not reflected by bone

47

What are the disadvantages to diathermy (2)

1. Costly equipment
2. Tissue being treated may not be visible

48

What are the types of electrodes used for diarthermy (2)

1. Capacitor electrodes
2. Induction electrodes

49

What is a capacitor electrode

A positively charged electrode that repels positive ions and attracts negative ions

50

Do capacitor electrodes create a strong magnetic of electric field

Stronger electric field

51

True or False:
The center of a capacitor electrode has a higher current density

True

52

True or False:
The patient is placed between two electrodes or plates and becomes part of the electric circuit

True

53

When using a capacitor electrode what tissues develop the greatest heat

Tissues that offer the greatest resistance to current flow

54

Which tissue offers the greatest resistance to flow

Fat

55

What are the 2 types of capacitor electrodes

1. Air spaced plates
2. Pad electrodes

56

Are air spaced plates seldom used or used quite frequently

Seldom used

57

How big are the 2 metal plates for air spaced plates

7.5-17.5 cm in diameter

58

What are the metal plates surrounded by for air spaced plates

Glass or plastic guard

59

What types of tissues are air spaced plates good for

Areas low in subcutaneous fat such as hands feet wrists ankles spine and ribs

60

What must be done in order to properly use pad electrodes

1. Must have uniform contact with the skin
2. Several layers of towels between pads and skin
3. Pads should be apart at least as far as they are wide
4. Tissue being treated should be centered in the electrode

61

What does increasing the distance between pads do for pad electrodes

Increases the depth of penetration

62

What do induction electrodes create stronger magnetic fields or electric fields

Stronger magnetic fields

63

True or False:
Induction electrodes induce localized secondary eddy currents

True

64

Is the patient inside or outside of the magnetic field in induction electrodes

Inside

65

What tissues cause the greatest current flow when using induction electrodes

Tissues with the lowest resistance

66

True or False:
When using induction electrodes tissues high in electrolyte content (muscle and blood) increase in temperature

True

67

What are the types of induction electrodes (2)

1. Cable
2. Drum

68

What is a cable induction electrode

Coil that is wound flat

69

How big should the diameter of the center coil be for cable induction electrodes

Bigger than 6 cm

70

How many cms of toweling should be between the coil and skin with cable induction electrodes

1 cm

71

True or False:
Spacers are used to keep the coils 5-10 cms between turns

True

72

What is a drum induction electrode

One or more monoplanar coils fixed inside a housing unit

73

What is the depth of penetration of a drum induction electrode if the drum is no more than 1-2 cm away from the skin

2-3 cm

74

True or False:
A towel does not need to be place between the skin and the drum because the moisture does not create hot spots

False:

75

True or False:
The housing should be in contact with the toweling for the best penetration

True

76

What is dose I

No perception of heat

77

What is dose II

Mild perception of heat

78

What is dose III

Comfortable perception of heat

79

What is dose IV

Maximum tolerable perception of heat

80

What are the general parameters for diathermy (4)

1. Power
2. Frequency
3. Mode
4. Duration

81

What can the power be up to in continuous mode

800 watts

82

What is power equal to in pulsed mode

Mean power = peak power*pulse duration*frequency

83

What are the parameters for shortwave diathermy (3)

1. Pulse duration is 20-400 usec
2. Pulse intensity is 1000 W/pulse
3. Pulse repetition is 1-7000 Hz

84

What does the off period allow for during PSWD

Heat to dissipate

85

True or False:
The decay of heating in the target tissue is slower for PSWD than it is for US allowing for more time for manual techniques

True

86

Does fat have the highest resistance to flow and the lowest resistance to flow

Highest: Electric fields
Lowest: Magnetic fields