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Flashcards in Traction Deck (58)
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1

What is the history of traction in Egypt 3000 BC

Axial traction for the reduction of spinal fractures

2

What is the history of traction by hippocrates 776 BC

Treatment of back pain

3

Who used hippocrates traction for low back pain treatment (3)

1. Galen
2. Avicenna
3. Pare

4

What did W. Gayle Crutchfield do for traction in 1933

Cranial tongs for treatment of cervical spine injuries

5

What did James Cyriax use traction for in the 1950s

Small nuclear protrusions

6

What is the definition of joint distraction

Separation of two joint surfaces perpendicular to the plane of the articulation

7

True or False:
For joint distraction to occur the force applied must be great enough to cause soft tissue elongation around the joint to allow for joint surfaces to distract

True

8

What percent of the body weight is needed to increase the length of the L-spine

25%

9

What percent of the body weight is needed to distract zygapophyseal joints in the L-spine

50%

10

What percent of the body weight is needed to increase the length of the C-spine

7%

11

How much separation occurs in the C-spine due to 25 lbs of traction

2-20 mm

12

Is the separation long lasting or short lived

Short lived

13

What did Krause et al determine about the effects of 60-120 lbs of lumbar traction

It can reduce disc prolapse and cause retraction of herniated disc material

14

What did Onel et al determine about the percent of herniated nucleus pulposus that retracted during traction for median, posterolateral, and lateral protrusions

Median: 78.5%
Posterolateral: 66.6%
Lateral: 57.1%

15

What does AB equal in the disc herniation index

Maximum AP disc length

16

What does CD equal in the disc herniation index

Width of the herniated disc at mid AB distance

17

What does EF equal in the disc herniation index

Maximum canal length

18

What does GH equal in the disc herniation index

Width of the spinal canal at mid AB distance

19

What is the equation for herniation index

(ABxCD)/(EFxGH)x1000

20

What did Worden et al determine about the process of stretching soft tissue with traction

It is the same as stretching and soft tissue

21

What did Mathews determine about traction causing muscle relaxation

Muscles relaxed due to reduction in the pressure on pain sensitive structures

22

What type of traction is the depression of monosynaptic response due to prolonged stretch

Static traction

23

What type of traction is the stimulation of GTOs to inhibit alpha motor neurons

Intermittent traction

24

What did Saunders determine about the percent of the body weight required to move joints in the spine

50%

25

True or False:
Lower forces of traction may reduce pain by stimulation of mechanoreceptor (spinal gate)

True

26

How does the patient get relief from traction (9)

1. Increasing space between vertebrae
2. Separating apophyseal joints
3. Widening of intervertebral foramina
4. Stretching muscles and ligaments
5. Reducing muscle spasm
6. Changing intervertebral disc pressure
7. Tensing PLL to exert force on disc
8. Creating suction force on disc
9. Flattening abnormal lumbar lordosis

27

How does traction effect bone

Increase the movement between vertebrae

28

How does traction effect ligaments

Tensile loads ligaments

29

How does traction effect articular facet joints (3)

1. Increases separation
2. Decreases compression loading
3. Allows synovial fluid exchange

30

How does traction effect muscles (2)

1. Lengthens tight muscles
2. Activates proprioceptors