Ultrasound Continued Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ultrasound Continued Deck (30):
1

What does US do during the inflammatory stage of healing (2)

1. Inducing vasodilation
2. Activation of adhesion molecules

2

How does US work at the inflammatory stage

By modulating the signal transduction pathway using a series of enzymatic proteins and altering protein structural

3

What does US do to immune response during the repair phase of healing (2)

1. Induce tissue debris clearance
2. Stimulate tissue remodeling

4

How does US improve the immune response during the repair phase of healing (2)

1. Anti-inflammatory cytokines down regulate T-cells
2. Redirect cellular activity toward proliferation

5

What is the frequency response hypothesis central premise

US energy is absorbed by proteins which alters structural conformation of proteins modulating protein function

6

At what level does US provide an effect

Impairment level

7

What are the clinical uses of US (9)

1. Aiding the inflammatory response to injury
2. Connective tissue healing
3. Superficial wound healing
4. Bone healing
5. Pitting edema
6. Reducing muscle spasm
7. Reducing pain
8. Restoring ROM due to scar/contracture
9. Stretching connective tissue

8

How does US aide in the inflammatory response to injury (3)

1. Stimulates collagen synthesis
2. Stimulates cell proliferation
3. Stimulates release of histamine

9

What are the parameters for US to aide in the inflammatory response of injury

Pulsed: 20% duty cycle, 0.5 W/cm2, 5 minutes
Continuous: 0.1 W/cm2, 5 minutes

10

How does US effect superficial wound healing (3)

1. Increased fibroblast production of collagen
2. Increased blood vessel development
3. Increased smooth muscle activity

11

What are the US parameters for bone healing

20% duty cycle, 1.5 MHz, 30 W/cm2, 20 minutes

12

How does US effect pitting edema

Heating effect from US will liquefy gel-like cellular debris which allows fluid to be removed by massage or elevation

13

How does US reduce muscle spasm (4)

1. Increases blood in area
2. Removed irritants
3. Reduces pain cycle
4. Increases O2 delivery to tissues

14

What are the 2 ways US reduces pain

1. Altering transmission or perception of pain
2. Modifying underlying condition causing pain

15

What are the 4 ways US alters transmission or perception of pain

1. Selectively heats peripheral nerve
2. May alter or block impulse conduction
3. Increase nerve cell membrane permeability
4. Increase tissue metabolism

16

What are the contraindictations of US (10)

1. Near malignant or benign tumor
2. Near uterus of a pregnant female
3. Central nervous system tissue
4. Over cemented joint replacement
5. Near pacemaker
6. Near a suspected thrombophlebitis
7. Over the eyes, ears, and genitalia
8. Near an area with infection
9. Over areas that have recently been exposed to radiation and radioactive isotopes
10. Over areas with active bleeding or susceptible to hemorrhage

17

What are precautions of US (4)

1. Acute inflammation
2. Epiphyseal plates
3. Fractures
4. Breast implants

18

What is the therapeutic dose of US

The amount of acoustic energy delivered to the tissue per square centimeter

19

True or False:
The treatment area should be no greater than 3x the ERA

True

20

How do you calculate the total energy of an US dose

E=P*T

21

How do you calculate the total energy delivered per sound head square cm

Es=E/ERA

22

How do you calculate the therapeutic does

D=Es/(S (treated area)/ERA)

23

True or False:
When doing US under water you don't really want to touch the patients skin

True

24

What is phonophoresis

The use of ultrasound energy to enhance delivery of topically applied drugs

25

What is the US used to do during phonophoresis

Enhance skin permeability

26

How does US enhance skin permeability during phonophoresis

Alters porous pathways

27

How does US alter porous pathways (3)

1. Enlarging pore radii
2. Creating more pores
3. Making pores less tortuous

28

What is phonophoresis typically used for (2)

1. Analgesic effects
2. Anti-inflammatory effects

29

What is the duty cycle for phonophoresis during early subacute stage, late subacute stage, and chronic stage

Early subacute: Pulsed
Late subacute: Continuous
Chronic: Continuous

30

Do higher or lower frequencies result in better absorption of medicine

Lower frequencies