Thermotherapy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Thermotherapy Deck (119):
1

True or False:
Humans are hemotherms

True

2

What does being a hemotherm mean

We are able to maintain our core temperature at a constant temp

3

What is the normal core temperature

98.6

4

What is diunral changes

Lower core temp in the am vs pm

5

True of False:
Older people tend to have lower core temperatures

True

6

What is the outside of the body referred to as

The shell

7

What is heat

Energy in transit from a higher temperature object to a lower temperature object

8

What type of energy is kinetic energy

Thermal energy

9

True or False:
Thermal potential energy remains constant so long as the phase of matter does not change

True

10

True or False:
Once water hits 32 the temperature remains the same until all of the water is frozen or melted

True

11

What is latent heat of fusion

The amount of heat required to convert a certain unit of a solid into a similar unit of a liquid without changing temperature

12

True or False:
A gel pack is able to withdraw more heat from the body compared to an ice pack

False

13

Why does an ice pack remove more heat than a gel pack even if the gel pack is colder

Due to the phase change of the ice pack

14

What temperature is considered extremely cold

32-55 F
1-13 C

15

What temperature is considered cold

55-65 F
13-18 C

16

What temperature is considered cool

65-80 F
18-27 C

17

What temperature is considered tepid

80-92 F
27-33.5 C

18

What temperature is considered neutral

92-96 F
33.5-35.5 C

19

What temperature is considered warm

96-98 F
35.5-36.5 C

20

What temperature is considered hot

98-104 F
36.5-40.0 C

21

What temperature is considered extremely hot

104-113 F
40-46 C

22

What is maximum tolerance

113-115 F
45-46 C

23

What is the first law of thermodynamics

Energy can neither be created nor destroyed it can only change from one state to another

24

What is specific heat

The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a given material by 1 C

25

Specific heat can be seen as an objects ability to what

Store heat

26

What does a higher specific heat mean

It can store a higher amount of heat

27

How long does it take for a hot pack to heat up again

30 minutes

28

What is conduction

The exchange of energy between 2 materials at different temperatures due to the direct collision between molecules

29

When does heat transfer stop

When the molecular movements of both objects is the same speed

30

What does the rate of heat transfer (ROHT) by conduction depend on (4)

1. Temperature difference between materials
2. Their thermal conductivity (ability to transmit heat
3. The area in contact
4. Tissue thickness

31

What temperature is the water that the hot packs are kept in

155-165 F

32

What is convection

The transfer of heat as the result of direct contact between a circulating medium and another material of a different temperature

33

In convection heat transfer is the thermal agent in constant motion or static

Constant motion

34

Examples of convection heat transfer (5)

1. Whirlpool
2. Fluidtherapy
3. Blood
4. Oven
5. Central air

35

What is conversion

Converting a non thermal form of energy into heat

36

What are the 2 types of conversion heat transfer

Mechanical and chemical

37

Examples of mechanical conversion heat transfer (2)

Ultrasound and friction

38

Examples of chemical conversion heat transfer (1)

Acid on metal

39

In conversion heat transfer what does the ROHT depend on

Power of the energy source

40

Does conversion heat transfer require direct contact

No

41

What is radiation heat transfer

Direct transfer of energy without direct contact or intervening medium

42

What does the rate of temperature increase depend on for radiation heat transfer (5)

1. Intensity of radiation
2. Relative size of the radiation source
3. Relative size of the radiated area
4. the distance of the source to the target tissue
5. The angle of the radiation source to the target tissue

43

True or False:
A material must absorb energy before it can evaporate

True

44

What is thermotherapy

The therapeutic application of heat

45

How is thermotherapy used in rehabilitation (4)

1. Hemodynamic effects
2. Neuromuscular effects
3. Metabolic effects
4. Altered tissue extensibility

46

What is hemodynamics

What is happening within the bloodstream

47

What does thermotherapy do to blood vessels

Causes vasodilation which increases blood flow

48

What does stimulation of cutaneous thermal receptors lead to (2)

1. Vasodilation
2. Increased production and release of histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins, and nitrous oxide

49

Briefly describe the pathway of a stimulation of a thermal receptor to smooth muscle contraction (5)

1. Stimulated thermal receptor
2. Projects through dorsal root ganglion
3. Synpase on interneurons
4. Inhibits sympathetic activity
5. Relaxes smooth muscle

50

Why do the blood vessels vasodilate

To prevent excessive heating and tissue damage

51

How does vasodilation prevent excessive heating

Increased blood flow which removes heat via convection

52

How does thermotherapy effect nerve conduction velocity

Increases it by 2m/sec for every 1.8 F (1 C)

53

What is the neuromuscular effects when you increase the muscle temperature to 108 F (42 C) (3)

1. Decreased firing rate of type II muscle spindle efferents and gamma efferents
2. Increased firing rate of type 1b fibers and GTO
3. Results in decreased firing rate of alpha motor neuron

54

What does a decrease in alpha motor neuron firing cause

Decrease in muscle contraction (spasm)

55

Does thermotherapy increase or decrease pain threshold

Increase

56

How does thermotherapy increase pain threshold (2)

1. Directly by activation of spinal gate
2. Indirectly by reduction in ischemia and muscle spasm and facilitation of tissue healing

57

What does thermotherapy do in demyelinated peripheral nerves (1)

1. Shortens the time Na+ channels are open which decreases conduction time

58

True or False:
Thermotherapy causes a decrease in muscle strength for the first 30 minutes after superficial or deep heating

True

59

How does thermotherapy effect the firing rate of type 1a muscle spindle efferents and gamma efferents

Decreases firing rate

60

How does thermotherapy effect the firing rate of type 1b fibers and GTO

Increases firing rate

61

How does thermotherapy effect the firing rate of alpha motor neurons

It decreases firing rate which decreases strength

62

After the first 30 minutes what happens to muscle strength during the next 2 hours

Returns then increases to above pre-intervention levels

63

True or False:
Thermotherapy causes an increase in endothermic chemical reaction rate including enzymatic biological reactions

True

64

How much does enzyme activity increase from 102-109 F

13% for every 18 F rise in tissue temp

65

What happens to enzyme activity after 113 F

It begins to decrease

66

At what temperature does the enzyme activity cease

122 F

67

What does increased oxygen uptake result in

Accelerated healing

68

How does thermotherapy effect collagenase

It increases the activity of collagenase which may increase destruction of articular cartilage in RA

69

How does heat shift the oxygen hemoglobin dissociation curve

To the right which makes more O2 available for healing

70

How does thermotherapy effect altered tissue extensibility (3)

1. Decreases fluid viscosity
2. Decreases joint and muscle stiffness
3. Relaxes cross linked collagen fibers

71

How do you achieve plastic deformation in altered tissue extensibility with thermotherapy

Increase tissue temperature to 104-113 F for 5-10 minutes

72

What are 3 uses for thermotherapy

1. Pain control
2. Increase ROM and decreased joint stiffness
3. Accelerated healing

73

What are 3 types of thermotherapy

1. Moist hot packs
2. Paraffin bath
3. Infrared lamps

74

What is the use of moist hot packs

Superficial heating of tissue

75

How does a moist hot pack heat tissue and how deep does it penetrate

Via conduction and 1 cm max depth

76

What is a moist gel pack made of

Canvas filled with silica gel

77

Where are moist hot packs stored and temp of water

Hydrocollator at 160 F

78

How long does it take a moist hot pack to heat up

20 minutes

79

How long does a moist hot pack retain heat

About 20 minutes

80

What is the target temperature you want to heat tissue to with moist hot packs

105.8-113 F

81

How long does it take for the moist hot pack to heat the tissue

8-10 minutes

82

How long does it take the body to reach thermal equilibrium after application of a moist hot pack

30 minutes

83

What is the purpose of moist hot packs (3)

1. Provide analgesia and reduce pain
2. Increase ROM and decrease joint stiffness
3. Accelerate healing

84

What are the physiological effects of moist hot packs (5)

1. Muscle relaxation via effects on muscle spindle and GTO
2. Sedation of sensory nerve endings
3. Increased capillary pressure and cell permeability
4. Increased extensibility of connective tissue
5. Increased body temp, pulse, and decreased BP

85

What are the indications for moist hot packs (4)

1. Impairments associated with sub acute and chronic conditions
2. Tissue contractures/adhesions
3. Joint stiffness
4. Stimulate perspiration to improve conductivity

86

What are contraindications for moist hot packs (9)

1. Acute inflammatory disorders
2. Fever
3. Malgnancies
4. Active bleeding
5. Cardiac insufficiency
6. Older patients and children under 4
7. Peripheral vascular disease (PVD)
8. Existing edema
9. Tissues devitalized by x-ray therapy

87

What are the advantages to moist hotpacks (2)

1. Relatively safe
2. May effectively treat local areas

88

What are the disadvantages to moist hotpacks (2)

1. Weight of some MHP
2. Treatment area is not readily visible

89

What is the maximum depth of heat penetration of paraffin baths

1 cm

90

What is a paraffin bath

Tank containing a mixture of medical paraffin wax and mineral oil

91

How are the 2 ingredients of a paraffin bath mixed

5lbs wax to 1 pint of oil

92

What is the melted wax temperature kept at

125-127 F

93

Is the specific heat of paraffin high or low

Low

94

The therapeutic purpose, physiological effects, indications, contraindications are the same as moist hot packs

PERFECT

95

What are the advantages to paraffin baths (2)

1. Useful in treating chronic orthopedic conditions of the distal extremities
2. Aid in softening skin

96

What are the disadvantages of paraffin baths (3)

1. Provides 6 times the amount of heat in water increasing risk of burns
2. Can be messy
3. Cleaning tank is difficult

97

What is the max depth of heat penetration for infrared lamps

1 cm

98

Where is most of the heat generally absorbed

first 1-3 mm

99

What are the 3 classifications of infrared lamps

1. IR-A (most common)
2. IR-B
3. IR-C

100

What are the wavelengths of IR-A (short or near IR)

770-1400 nm

101

What are the wavelengths of IR-B (middle IR)

1400-3000 nm

102

What are the wavelengths of IR-C (long or far IR)

3000-10 to the 6th

103

What is the IR generated by luminous lamps

IR-A

104

What are the IR generated by nonluminous lamps (2)

1. IR-B
2. IR-C

105

What is an infrared lamp

Lamp or baker that generates infrared radiation

106

Tissue temperature rise (TTR) is proportional to what (5)

1. Amount of radiation absorbed
2. Power and wavelength of source
3. Distance of the source to the tissues
4. Angle of incidence of the radiation
5. Absorption coefficient of the tissue

107

Most infrared lamps deliver power in a range of what

50-1500 watts

108

What is clinically used wavelength

780-1500

109

What wavelength does human skin allow maximal penetration

1200 nm

110

What types of tissue absorbs IR radiation best high or low absorption coefficient

High absorption coefficient

111

What color skin has a higher absorption coefficient

Dark skin

112

How is heat produced in a luminous lamp

By the resistance to an electric current as it passes through a tungsten or carbon filament

113

What type of light does a luminous lamp produce

Visible bright white light (IR-A)

114

What is the power output of luminous lamps

60-1500

115

Is there a warm up period required for a luminous lamp

Nope

116

Therapeutic purpose, physiologic effects, indications, and contraindications are the same as moist hot packs

PERFECT

117

What are the advantages of infrared lamps (2)

1. Does not require contact with the patient
2. Can see the area being treated during the session

118

What are the disadvantages of infrared lamps (3)

1. Ensuring uniform heating is difficult
2. Glare may irritate patient
3. Hard to localize a treatment area

119

What are the reasons to use thermotherapy as an intervention (6)

1. Increase local blood flow
2. Relax muscle spasm
3. Increase tissue temperature
4. Increase local tissue extensibility
5. Modulate pain
6. Promote tissue healing