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Flashcards in Hydrotherapy and Contrast Baths Deck (97):
1

What is bouyancy

The ability to disperse water to stay afloat

2

What is Archimedes' principle

An object that is immersed in water experiences an upward thrust equal to the weight of the water displaced

3

In water are upward or downward movements assisted

Upward movements

4

In water are upward or downward movements resisted

Downward movements

5

What is specific gravity

The measure of an objects density in g/cm3

6

What is the specific gravity of pure water at 4 C

1.00 g/cm

7

If an object has a specific gravity above 1.00 g/cm3 will it float or sink

Sink

8

If an object has a specific gravity below 1.00 g/cm3 will it float or sink

Float

9

What is a person with inflated lungs specific gravity

0.974 g/cm3

10

What is unity

Specific gravity of 1.00 g/cm3

11

What is the center of bouyancy

Reference point that only pertains to that segment of the body immersed in water

12

Is the rotary component of gravity compressive or distractive

Distractive

13

IS the rotary component of bouyancy compressive or distractive

Compressive

14

Where is the center of bouyancy applied

The center of mass of the object

15

What does changing the center of bouyancy do

Changes the MA of the exercise

16

What is hydrostatic pressure

Pressure exerted by the water on the immersed part

17

What is Pascal's Law

When an object is immersed in a fluid at rest the fluid will exert equal pressure on all surfaces of the object

18

What happens to hydrostatic pressure as you go deeper into the water

It increases

19

Is it easier or harder to breath the deeper you go

Harder because the hydrostatic pressure is higher

20

After 18 feet of diving while scuba diving do you have to do

Pause to let the body equalize the pressure

21

What movement speed causes less and more resistance in water

More: Moving faster
Less: Moving slower

22

What is viscosity

The degree to which a fluid resists flow

23

What is viscosity due to

The cohesive forces present between molecules

24

True or False:
The viscosity of water tends to resist movement in all directions

True

25

How does increasing the temperature effect viscosity

It decreases viscosity by relaxing the cohesive forces of the molecules

26

What temperature what is easier and harder for exercising

Easier: Warmer water
Harder: Colder water

27

What are the physiological effects of hydrotherapy (6)

1. Cleansing effects
2. Musculoskeletal effects
3. Cardiovascular effects
4. Respiratory effects
5. Renal effects
6. Psychological effects

28

What are the cleansing effects of hydrotherapy (5)

1. Treatment of open wounds
2. Pressure
3. Debriding agent
4. Cleansing agent
5. Can add products to water to improve cleansing power

29

How does the pressure effect cleansing

Softens and removes debris

30

How does a debriding agent effect cleansing

Removes endogenous agents

31

How does a cleansing agent effect cleansing

Remove exogenous waste

32

What are the products you can add to water to improve cleansing power (2)

1. Antimicrobials
2. Surfactants

33

What do surfactants do

Decrease surface tension

34

What is nonimmersion cleansing (2)

1. Water picks
2. Lavage

35

What are the musculoskeletal effects of hydrotherapy (4)

1. Decreased weight bearing
2. Strengthening
3. Slowed bone density loss
4. Less fat loss than with other forms of exercise

36

Why is there less fat loss with hydrotherapy

Due to the decreased resistance

37

What are the cardiovascular effects of hydrotherapy (1)

1. Increased venous circulation

38

What does increasing the venous circulation do (3)

1. Increases cardiac volume
2. Increases cardiac output
3. Decreased heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and VO2 respone to exercise

39

What are the respiratory effects of hydrotherapy (3)

1. Decreased vital capcity
2. Increased work of breathing
3. Decreased exercise induced asthma

40

What are the renal effects of hydrotherapy (2)

1. Diuresis
2. Increased sodium and potassium excretion

41

What is diuresis

Increased production of urine

42

What are the psychological effects of hydrotherapy (2)

1. Relaxation
2. Invigoration

43

What temperature creates relaxation and invigoration

Relaxation: Warmer water
Invigoration: Cold water

44

What are the indications for hydrotherapy (5)

1. Subacute/chronic soft tissue injuries
2. Shortened tissues, contractures, and scars
3. Arthritis
4. Open wounds
5. Muscle weakness

45

What are the therapeutic effects of hydrotherapy for subacute/chronic soft tissue injuries (5)

1. Decreases swelling
2. Hastens healing
3. Decreases pain/spasm
4. Increases ROM
5. Increases strength

46

What property of water decreases swelling, hastens healing, decreases pain/spasm, increases ROM, and increases strength

1. Decreases swelling= Pressure
2. Hastens healing= Thermal
3. Decreases pain/spasm= Thermal
4. Increases ROM= Bouyancy and thermal
5. Increases strength= Bouyancy and pressure

47

What are the therapeutic effects of hydrotherapy for shortened tissues, contractures, and scars (3)

1. Causes relaxation
2. Increases extensibility of nonelastic tissues
3. Softens scar tissue

48

What property of water causes relaxation, increases extensibility of nonelastic tissues, and softens scar tissue

1. Causes relaxation= Thermal and psychological
2. Increases extensibility of nonelastic tissues= Thermal
3. Softens scar tissue= Fluidity and thermal

49

What are the therapeutic effects of hydrotherapy for arthritis (3)

1. Increased joint mobility
2. Decreased pain
3. Increases ROM

50

What property of water causes increased joint mobility, decreased pain, and increases ROM

Thermal and bouyancy for all 3

51

What are the therapeutic effects of hydrotherapy for open wounds (2)

1. Cleanses and debrides
2. Increases circulation

52

What property of water causes cleansing and debridement and increases circulation

1. Cleanses and debrides= Fluidity and pressure
2. Increases circulation= Thermal and pressure

53

What are the therapeutic effects of hydrotherapy for muscle weakness (2)

1. Increased ROM
2. Increased strength

54

What property of water causes increased ROM and increased strength

1. Increased ROM= Bouyancy and anti-bouyancy
2. Increased strength= Pressure

55

What are the contraindications for hydrotherapy (6)

1. Cardiac dysfunction
2. Respiratory dysfunction
3. Decreased thermal sensation
4. severe PVD diabetic arterial sclerosis
5. Surface infections
6. Acute rheumatoid arthritis

56

What is the rationale for not using hydrotherapy for cardiac dysfunction

Heart cannot adapt to changes needed for thermal homeostasis adjustment

57

What is the rationale for not using hydrotherapy for respiratory dysfunction

Inability to resist hydrostatic pressure, tolerate heat, or both

58

What is the rationale for not using hydrotherapy for decreased thermal sensation

Inability to report overheatting or overcooling

59

What is the rationale for not using hydrotherapy for severe PVD diabetic, arterial sclerosis

Contraindications for heat avoid temps above 95 F

60

What is the rationale for not using hydrotherapy for surface infections

Infections may spread to other areas or cross contaminate via water

61

What is the rationale for not using hydrotherapy for acute rheumatoid arthritis

Contraindications for heat

62

True or False:
Contrast baths are a form of infrared modality emitting electromagnetic radiation

True

63

Are contrast baths used for superficial or deep heating and cooling

Superficial

64

What is the maximum depth of penetration of heating and cooling

1 cm

65

Contrast baths use which type of heat transfer

Conduction

66

What is a contrast bath

Immersion of a part of the body into baths in which the temperature of the water alternates between warm and cold

67

What is the primary goal of contrast baths

Vascular exercise

68

What is another potential goal of contrast baths

May promote pain relief and desensitization

69

How is a contrast bath a vascular exercise

Alternate dilation and constriction of local blood vessels

70

True or False:
Contrast baths stimulate peripheral circulation which may stimulate the healing process in damaged tissues

True

71

What are the physiologic responses to contrast baths (2)

1. Vasoconstriction and vasodilation of superficial blood flow
2. Edema is decreased

72

What are the indications for contrast baths (5)

1. Impaired venous circulation
2. Subacute or chronic traumatic and inflammatory conditions
3. Chronic edema
4. Sinus or congestive headaches
5. Hypersensitivity due to reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) and complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)

73

True or False:
Contrast baths may be used during the transition period between acute and subacute

True

74

What are the contraindications of contrast baths

The same as hot and cold therapy

75

True or False:
Whirlpools are a form of infrared modality emitting electromagnetic radiation

True

76

Are whirlpools used for superficial or deep heating and cooling

Superficial heating and cooling

77

What is the depth of penetration for whirlpools

1 cm

78

What type of heat transfer does whirlpool use (2)

1. Conduction
2. Convection

79

True or False:
Whirlpools are a mechanical modality used for debriding open wounds

True

80

What is a whirlpool

A tub of water which is agitated by an electric turbine made of stainless steel or acrylic material that comes in many shapes and size which is used for heating

81

What are the types of whirlpools (2)

1. Extremity tanks
2. High-body and low-body tanks

82

What is an extremity tank used for

Immersing distal extremity

83

What is a high-body and low-body tank used for

Immersing larger body parts of the extremities as well as immersion up to the waist

84

What are the therapeutic goals for whirlpool (5)

1. To debride open wounds
2. Same as for those of other superficial heating modalities
3. Same as for those of other superficial cooling modalities
4. To provide a medium for therapeutic exercise
5. To reduce pain

85

What are the physiologic effects of whirlpools (3)

1. Increases hydrostatic pressure
2. Moistens and softens tissue for debridement
3. Agitation effects

86

What are the agitation effects of whirlpools (5)

1. Provide phasic stimuli to skin afferents
2. Increase hydrostatic pressure further
3. Provide a means of grading exercise
4. Decrease the thermal gradients within the water
5. Remove debris and necrotic tissue and decrease bacterial load

87

What are the indications for whirlpool (4)

1. Infected/dirty open wounds
2. Subacute or chronic inflammatory conditions
3. Early peripheral vascular disease (PVD)
4. Muscle weakness

88

What are the contraindications for whirlpool (2)

1. Same as for other superficial heating or cooling modalities
2. Venous stasis ulcers

89

What are the cautions of whirlpool (3)

1. Be certain that the whirlpool is plugged into an outlet that is protected by a ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI)
2. When using a warm whirlpool for large body area, monitor for signs of faintness or fever
3. Monitor for signs of patient becoming seasick from the motion of the water

90

How do you combat seasickness

Drape a sheet over the whirlpool

91

What temp is very hot

40-43.5

92

What temp is hot

37-40

93

What temp is warm

35.5-37

94

What temp is neutral

33.5-35.5

95

What temp is tepid

27-33.5

96

What is a hubbard tank

A butterfly shaped whirlpool designed so that a patient may be immersed in a recumbent position

97

What is the goal of a hubbard tank

Deliver heat or cold to a large portion of the body to allow for "un-weighted" exercise