Inflammation and Healing Process Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Inflammation and Healing Process Deck (55):
1

What are the 4 phases of injury and repair

1. Hemostasis
2. Inflammatory phase
3. Proliferation phase
4. Maturation phase

2

When does hemostasis occur

Immediately after injury

3

How long does the inflammatory phase last

1-6 days

4

How long does the proliferation phase last

3-20 days

5

How long does the maturation phase last

Day 9 and on

6

What is diapedesis

Squeezing through vessel walls

7

What is blood accumulated in tissue

Hematoma

8

What is blood accumulated in a joint

Hemarthrosis

9

What is the equation for capillary filtration pressure (CFP)

CFP=(CHP+TOP)-(THP+COP)

10

What is CHP

Capillary hydrostatic pressure

11

What is COP

Capillary osmotic pressure

12

What is hydrostatic pressure

Pressure exerted by a column of water

13

What is osmotic pressure

Pressure resulting from attraction f fluid by free proteins

14

Does hydrostatic pressure pull or push water

Pushes water

15

Does osmotic pressure pull or push water

Pulls water

16

What are the 3 polymorphonuclear leukocytes

1. Neutrophils
2. Basophils
3. Eosinophils

17

When are polymorphonuclear leukocytes released

The first 24 hours

18

What do neutrophils do

Phagocytosis and release protease and collagenase

19

What do basophils do

Release histamine and increase vascular permeability

20

What do eosinophils do

Phagocytosis

21

What are the 2 mononuclear leukocytes

1. Monocytes
2. Lymphocytes

22

When are the mononuclear leukocytes released

Hours 24-48

23

What are monocytes converted to

Converted to macrophages, collagenase, fribronectin, hydrogenperoxide, ascorbic acid, and lactic acid

24

When are monocytes most effective

In O2 rich environment

25

What do lymphocytes do

Supply antibodies

26

What do B lymphocytes do

Release antibodies into the bloodstream

27

What do T lymphocytes do

Assist B cells in regulation of cloning

28

What does hypoxia do (4)

1. Switch from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism
2. Decreases ATP production
3. Decreases cell membrane function
4. Increase cellular acidosis

29

How does hypoxia affect cell membrane function (3)

1. Na pump slows or stops
2. [Na] in cell increases
3. [H2O] increases, cell swells, bursts

30

What is the process of making collagen from fibroblasts (6)

1. Fibroblasts
2. Procollagen
3. Tropocollagen
4. Collagen fibrils
5. Collagen filaments
6. Collagen fibers

31

What is granulation tissue

Tissue composed of capillaries, fibroblasts, and myofibroblasts

32

What type of collagen is initially formed

Type III

33

When does type III collagen begin to be replaced by type I collagen

By day 12

34

When do the edges of the wound start to pull together

5 days after injury

35

How long does it take the wound to close in muscle or skin

5-8 days

36

How long does it take the wound to close in ligament or tendon

3-6 weeks

37

What is angiogenesis

Growth of new blood vessels

38

What does the scar tissue remaining redder than the surrounding tissue mean

The scar tissue is still remodeling

39

What is the induction theory of collagen fiber orientation

Scars attempt to mimic characteristics of injured tissue

40

What is the tension theory of collagen fiber orientation

Internal and external stresses applied during the maturation phase determine the final tissue structure

41

What is regeneration

Restoration of the tissue that is identical to the injured tissue

42

What is repair

Fibrous scar formation and structural and functional properties of injured tissue altered

43

What is ideal healing

Normal structure, function, and appearance

44

What is acceptable healing

Almost normal structure and appearance but less than optimal function

45

What is minimal healing

Some normal structure, function, appearance

46

What is failed healing

Abnormal structure, function, and appearance

47

Where does a grade I and II articular cartilage tear occur

Superficial layers of cartilage

48

Where does a grade III articular cartilage tear occur

Near the subchondral bone

49

What does ice do

Limits secondary injury

50

How does ice limit secondary injury (2)

Metabolically or chemically

51

How does ice prevent secondary injury chemically

Limits permeability thus leakage of protein rich fluid into the tissue decreases

52

How does ice prevent secondary injury metabolically

Causes O2 debt leads to anaerobic metabolism, which is slower than aerobic metabolism

53

What does compression do (3)

1. Increase external capillary pressure
2. Decrease CFP
3. Decreases edema formation

54

What does elevation do

Decreases capillary hydrostatic pressure

55

What does protection/stabilization do (2)

1. Allows muscle to relax
2. Reduces pain and neural inhibition