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Flashcards in Energy Deck (48):
1

What is an electrophysical agent

A form of therapy used to produce a change in soft tissue through the addition or removal of energy

2

When is energy added to the body

When the temperature of the modality is above the core body temp

3

When is energy removed from the body

When the temperature of the modality is below the core body temp

4

What is energy

The capacity of a system for doing work

5

What is radiant energy

Process by which energy of various forms travels through space

6

What substances emit radiant energy

All substances above absolute zero (-273)

7

What is the constant velocity of radiant energy

3x10to8 m/sec2

8

What does quantum theory view radiant energy as

Packet of energy that is indivisible (photon)

9

How is a photon produced

By high velocity electronic or molecular motion or transformed kinetic energy released when molecules collide

10

What is the equation for energy

E=Hxf

11

What is H

Planck's constant

12

What happens when the frequency increases

The energy increases

13

What is the electromagnetic wave theory

Energy is transmitted by oscillatory motion in the form of electromagnetic waves

14

What makes up the electromagnetic waves

electric and magnetic fields that vary over time and are perpendicular to each other

15

True or False:
Electromagnetic waves can propagate without a medium (in a vacuum)

True

16

How do you determine the velocity of a wave

V=wavelength*frequency

17

What does a shorter wavelength mean

higher frequency

18

What does quantum theory state if the frequency is low

Energy is low

19

What does electromagnetic theory state is frequency is low

Wavelength is long

20

True or False:
Modalities at low electromagnetic frequencies have long wave lengths and low energy are safe to use

True

21

True or False:
Lower frequency electromagnetic radiation is nonionizing

True

22

What does nonionizing mean

Cannot break molecular bonds or produce ions

23

True or False:
Ionizing energies are destructive

True

24

What are the 5 laws governing the effects of electromagnetic radiation

1. Arndt-schultz principle
2. Law of Grotthus-Draper
3. Cosine Law
4. Inverse Square Law
5. Bunsen Roscoe Law of Reciprocity

25

What is Arndt-Schultz principle

In order for a reaction to occur you must impart enough energy

26

What can happen if too much energy is imparted

Impairment of normal tissue function may occur

27

What is the Law of Grotthus-Draper

If the energy is not absorbed by the superficial tissue it will penetrate to deeper tissues

28

What have greater depth of penetration when it comes to sound waves high or low frequency

Low frequency

29

What is Cosine Law

The maximum amount of absorption of radiant energy occurs when the source is at right angles to the absorbing surface

30

What is the inverse square law

The intensity of radiation striking the surface varies inversely with the square of the distance from the source

31

What is the Bunsen Roscoe Law of Reciprocity

The intensity and duration of the dose of radiant energy are inversely proportional

32

What is the equation for the Bunsen Roscoe Law of Reciprocity

Energy=intensity*time

33

True or False:
The greater the temperature differential the quicker the transfer of energy

True

34

How do you increase the amount of energy absorbed by the patient (4)

1. Increase treatment time
2. Increase treatment intensity
3. Lessen the distance of the source of energy
4 Make the source of energy more perpendicular to the absorbing surface

35

What is iontophoresis

Use of electric currents to push medicine through the skin

36

What is the frequencies of ultrasound

Above 20KHz

37

What is the therapeutic range for ultrasound

.75-3.3MHz

38

What is phonophoresis

Use of sound waves to push medicine through the skin

39

What are the 3 categories of physical agents (3)

1. Thermal
2. Mechanical
3. Electromagnetic

40

What are 3 thermal physical agents

1. Deep heating
2. Superficial heating
3. Cooling

41

What is an example of deep heating, superficial heating, and cooling

1. Diathermy
2. Hot pack
3. Ice massage

42

What are 4 mechanical physical agents

1. Traction
2. Compression
3. Water
4. Sound

43

What is an example of traction, compression, water, and sound

1. Mechanical
2. Elastic bandage
3. Whirlpool
4. Ultrasound

44

What are 2 electromagnetic physical agents

1. Electric currents
2 Electromagnetic fields

45

What is an example of electric currents and electromagnetic fields

1. Interferential
2. Ultraviolet

46

What is a precaution

Conditions where a particular physical agent should be applied with care or limitations

47

What is a contraindication

Conditions where the application of a particular physical agent is unsafe or undesirable

48

What are 5 general contraindications and precautions

1. Pregnancy
2. Malignancy
3. Pacemaker
4. Impaired sensation
5. Impaired mental status