Electrotherapy for Iontophoresis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Electrotherapy for Iontophoresis Deck (53):
1

Who used electromotive force to move ions through skin and when

Pivati 1747
Fabre-Palaprat 1833

2

True or False:
Ionized medication must be placed under electrode of the same charge

True

3

What is the mechanism of topical drug delivery without iontophoresis

Passive diffusion

4

What is the stratum corneum

Outer most layer of skin

5

True or False:
The stratum corneum limits the drug diffusion rate through the skin

True

6

How does a topical drug get into the blood stream

The medicinal molecules permeate the dermis and are absorbed into the blood stream via the capillaries

7

What is iontophoresis

The introduction of medicinal ions into the body tissues by means of a low voltage direct electromotive force (DC current)

8

How does iontophoresis occur

By the direct electrostatic repulsion of an ion by a similarly charged electrode

9

What causes the medication to get into the body

The permeability of the stratum corneum is increased

10

What is electroporation

Temporary production of water soluble pores in the skin

11

What is electroosmosis

As water is carried through the skin it can carry other objects dissolved in it along with it

12

True or False:
DC current produces a buildup of ions under the electrodes producing chemical reaction and altering skin pH

True

13

What builds up under the negative electrode during iontophoresis and what type of reaction does it cause

Sodium hydroxide (+ions) alkaline reaction

14

What builds up under the positive electrode during iontophoresis and what type of reaction does it cause

Hydrochloric acid (-ions) acidic reaction

15

How do you minimize these reactions

Decrease current density

16

True or False:
In ionotphoresis the electrodes are generally buffered to keep pH in a specific region

True

17

What is the dosage of iontophoresis measured in

mA.minutes

18

How do you determine the dosage of iontophoresis

Amplitude*duration

19

True or False:
The dosage depends upon the specific electrode being used

True

20

What did Delacerda determine was the drug delivery range for iontophoresis

40-80 mA.minutes

21

What do most manufacturers recommend for the dosage of iontophoresis

40 mA.minutes

22

How does a higher current amplitude and a shorter duration provide a greater delivery of the drug for iontophoresis

The higher the push of the drug through the skin to achieve the desired effect in a shorter time

23

What is a side effect of higher current amplitude

Higher build up of electrochemical response and effect under the electrode leading to potential pain and discomfort

24

How long does it take to get a dose of 40 mA.minutes with 1, 2, 3, and 4 mA of current

1: 40 minutes
2. 20 minutes
3. 13.3 minutes
4. 10 minutes

25

What is the depth of penetration of iontophoresis

1-3 mm

26

12-24 hours after treatment what may the penetration of the drug reach

1.5 cm

27

What are the advantages of iontophoresis (5)

1. Painless, sterile, noninvasive
2. May avoid systemic distribution
3. Avoids the first pass effect at the liver
4. Less chance of over dose
5. Easy drug termination

28

What are the general indications for iontophoresis (3)

1. Localized problem
2. Fairly superficial
3. Patient able to tolerate drug and effective current dosage

29

What are the indications for iontophoresis (6)

1. Localized chronic and sub-acute inflammation
2. Pain
3. Hyperhidrosis
4. Muscle spasms
5. Calcium deposits
6. Gout

30

What is hyperhidrosis

Excessive sweating

31

What are the localized chronic and sub-acute inflammatory processes treated by iontophoresis most commonly

Itises

32

What are the contraindications for iontophoresis (7)

1. Anesthetic skin in the area to be treated
2. Recent scars in the treatment area
3. Metal embedded close to the surface of the skin
4. Damage or denuded skin
5. Cardiac pacemaker or presence of arrythmias
6. Placement of electrodes over carotid sinus or areas of venous or arterial thrombosis
7. Sensitivity to the treatment drug

33

What are the drug requirements for iontophoresis (4)

1. Must be in ionized state
2. Must be soluble in water and lipids
3. Must be able to permeate through the skin
4. Most medications require a prescription from a physician

34

What must be known about the solubility of the drug

What is the active ion

35

True or False:
Iontophoresis electrodes have a small chamber to house the drug

True

36

True or False:
Iontophoresis electrodes are covered by a semipermeable membrane and are self adherent to the skin

True

37

When makes the iontophoresis electrode an active electrode

The one with the drug in it

38

What is the dispersive electrode prepared with

Water, gel, or other conducting material

39

What is current density equal to

Current amplitude/electrode size (area)

40

Is the current more focused with a smaller or larger electrode during iontophoresis

Smaller electrode

41

What can a smaller electrode result in

Tissue burn

42

What is one benefit to a smaller electrode for iontophoresis

It mat increase ion velocity

43

What is the recommended maximum current density if delivered from the cathode

0.5 mA/cm2

44

What is the recommended maximum current density if delivered from the anode

1.0 mA/cm2

45

What is the anode

Positive electrode

46

What is the cathode

Negative electrode

47

What does an increased ion velocity result in

Increased drug transmission

48

What are the ions used for iontophoresis under the negative electrode (5)

1. Acetate
2. Chloride
3. Dexamethasone phosphase
4. Salicylate
5. Iodine

49

What is the source of acetate, chloride, dexamethasone phosphase, salicylate, and iodine for iontophoresis

1. Acetate: Acetic acid
2. Chloride: NaCl
3. Dexamethasone phosphase: DexNa2PO3
4. Salicylate: NaSal
5. Iodine: Iodine

50

What is the indication for acetate, chloride, dexamethasone phosphase, salicylate, and iodine for iontophoresis

1. Acetate: Calcium deposits
2. Chloride: Sclerotic
3. Dexamethasone phosphase: Inflammation
4. Salicylate: Inflammation and plantar warts
5. Iodine: Scar

51

What are the ions used for iontophoresis under the positive electrode (4)

1. Copper
2. Hyaluronidase
3. Lidocaine
4. Magnesium

52

What is the source of copper, hyaluronidase, lidocaine, and magnesium for iontophoresis

1. Copper: CuSO4
2. Hyaluronidase: Wydase
3. Lidocaine: Lidocaine 1:50000 with epinephrine
4. Magnesium: MgSO4

53

What is the indication for copper, hyaluronidase, lidocaine, and magnesium

1. Copper: Sclerotic
2. Hyaluronidase: Edema reduction
3. Lidocaine: Local anesthetic
4. Magnesium: Muscle relaxant and vasodilator