Electrotherapy for Iontophoresis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Electrotherapy for Iontophoresis Deck (53)
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1

Who used electromotive force to move ions through skin and when

Pivati 1747
Fabre-Palaprat 1833

2

True or False:
Ionized medication must be placed under electrode of the same charge

True

3

What is the mechanism of topical drug delivery without iontophoresis

Passive diffusion

4

What is the stratum corneum

Outer most layer of skin

5

True or False:
The stratum corneum limits the drug diffusion rate through the skin

True

6

How does a topical drug get into the blood stream

The medicinal molecules permeate the dermis and are absorbed into the blood stream via the capillaries

7

What is iontophoresis

The introduction of medicinal ions into the body tissues by means of a low voltage direct electromotive force (DC current)

8

How does iontophoresis occur

By the direct electrostatic repulsion of an ion by a similarly charged electrode

9

What causes the medication to get into the body

The permeability of the stratum corneum is increased

10

What is electroporation

Temporary production of water soluble pores in the skin

11

What is electroosmosis

As water is carried through the skin it can carry other objects dissolved in it along with it

12

True or False:
DC current produces a buildup of ions under the electrodes producing chemical reaction and altering skin pH

True

13

What builds up under the negative electrode during iontophoresis and what type of reaction does it cause

Sodium hydroxide (+ions) alkaline reaction

14

What builds up under the positive electrode during iontophoresis and what type of reaction does it cause

Hydrochloric acid (-ions) acidic reaction

15

How do you minimize these reactions

Decrease current density

16

True or False:
In ionotphoresis the electrodes are generally buffered to keep pH in a specific region

True

17

What is the dosage of iontophoresis measured in

mA.minutes

18

How do you determine the dosage of iontophoresis

Amplitude*duration

19

True or False:
The dosage depends upon the specific electrode being used

True

20

What did Delacerda determine was the drug delivery range for iontophoresis

40-80 mA.minutes

21

What do most manufacturers recommend for the dosage of iontophoresis

40 mA.minutes

22

How does a higher current amplitude and a shorter duration provide a greater delivery of the drug for iontophoresis

The higher the push of the drug through the skin to achieve the desired effect in a shorter time

23

What is a side effect of higher current amplitude

Higher build up of electrochemical response and effect under the electrode leading to potential pain and discomfort

24

How long does it take to get a dose of 40 mA.minutes with 1, 2, 3, and 4 mA of current

1: 40 minutes
2. 20 minutes
3. 13.3 minutes
4. 10 minutes

25

What is the depth of penetration of iontophoresis

1-3 mm

26

12-24 hours after treatment what may the penetration of the drug reach

1.5 cm

27

What are the advantages of iontophoresis (5)

1. Painless, sterile, noninvasive
2. May avoid systemic distribution
3. Avoids the first pass effect at the liver
4. Less chance of over dose
5. Easy drug termination

28

What are the general indications for iontophoresis (3)

1. Localized problem
2. Fairly superficial
3. Patient able to tolerate drug and effective current dosage

29

What are the indications for iontophoresis (6)

1. Localized chronic and sub-acute inflammation
2. Pain
3. Hyperhidrosis
4. Muscle spasms
5. Calcium deposits
6. Gout

30

What is hyperhidrosis

Excessive sweating