Flashcards in Endocrine Deck (45):
Hormones greek origin
"To set in motion"
releasing hormones, which are sent to the anterior pituitary releases its stored trophic hormones into the systemic circulation. They tell other endocrine organs in the body to grow and secrete their hormones.
FSH Follicle-stimulating hormone (testes-testosterone)
Lutenizing Hormone (ovaries- estrogen, progesterone)
ADH Antidiuretic Hormone (vasopressen)
Islets of langerhans produces what?
Insulin, glucagon and pancreatic polypeptide
breakdown of glycogen stores, in the liver and muscle tissue, into glucose
DKA liver catabolizes fatty acids to produce what 3 keytone bodies
Used to lose weight
Medications for diabetes oral
Actos, glucophage (metformin),
Sulfonylureas- increase Beta cells to inc insulin (type 2)
First generation- chlorpropamide
Second generation- Glyburide
Alpha-glucasidase inhibitors- (alpha=glucagon) delay the absorption of glucose
How many deaths are contributed to diabetes per year?
Complications of diabetes?
Heart Disease and Stroke
High Blood Pressure
Nervous System Damage
Secretes hormones directly into the circulation
Hormone concentration over time. How is it released?
Released in cyclic pulses
8 endocrine glands/organs?
Goal of endocrine system
Plays a role in sleep, aging, and reproduction.
May affect mood - SAD
Most common form of hyperthyroidism causing immune system to attack the thyroid gland
Hyperthyroidism does what to the metabolic rate?
Increases metabolic rate
S/S of hyperthyroid
Thyrotoxic Crisis AKA
Thyroid storm (fatal in 48hrs)
S/S or Thyrotoxic Crisis
Fails to produce or secrete as much thyroxine (T4)
Thyroxine (T4) regulates
heart rate, digestion, physical growth, and mental development (an insufficient supply of this hormone can slow life-sustaining processes, damage organs and tissues in every part of the body, and lead to life-threatening complications.)
Hypothyroidism does what to the skin?
Causes accumulation of mucinous material in the skin resulting in thickening and coarsening of the skins
-Includes heart and internal organs
Small glands on the posterior later surface of the thyroid gland
T lymphocytes mature here
"Grave muscle weakness"
Pancreas exocrine function
Acini glands that produce pancreatic juice
Duct system that carries pancreatic juices to small intestine
Pancreas Endocrine functions
Pancreatic islets (Islets of Langerhans) that produce hormones
Hormones are not released unless there is sugar in the blood….produced as demand is made
Type II diabetes
What forms Glycosurea?
Increase sugar in the kidney draws water from the bloodstream and pee out glucose
Diabetes II Coma
Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Coma
Adrenal Medula secretes?
Secretes Epi and Norepi
Adrenal Cortex function and secretes?
Secretes Aldosterone and Androgenic hormones
Cortisol positive effects
A quick burst of energy for survival reasons
Heightened memory functions
Lower sensitivity to pain
Helps maintain homeostasis in the body
Cortisol negative effects
Impaired cognitive performance
Suppressed thyroid function
Blood sugar imbalances such as hyperglycemia
Decreased bone density
Decrease in muscle tissue
Lowered Immune and inflammatory responses causing lowed wound healing, and other health consequences
Increased abdominal fat, associated with MI & CVA
The development of higher levels of “bad” cholesterol (LDL) and lower levels of “good” cholesterol (HDL), which can lead to other health problems!
abnormally high circulating cortisol
Atrophy of the adrenal cortex and minimal production of hormones, aldosterone and adrogenic hormones