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Flashcards in Endocrine Deck (45):
1

Hormones greek origin

"To set in motion"

2

Hypothalamus

Coordinating center

3

Hypothalamus makes

releasing hormones, which are sent to the anterior pituitary releases its stored trophic hormones into the systemic circulation. They tell other endocrine organs in the body to grow and secrete their hormones.

4

Anterior Pituitary

FSH Follicle-stimulating hormone (testes-testosterone)
Lutenizing Hormone (ovaries- estrogen, progesterone)

5

Posterior Pituitary

ADH Antidiuretic Hormone (vasopressen)

6

Islets of langerhans produces what?

Insulin, glucagon and pancreatic polypeptide

7

Alpha cells

Secrete glucagon

8

Beta cells

Secrete insulin

9

Delta cells

Somatostatin

10

glycogenolysis

breakdown of glycogen stores, in the liver and muscle tissue, into glucose

11

DKA liver catabolizes fatty acids to produce what 3 keytone bodies

Acetoacetic acid
Acetone
Beta-hydroxybutyric acid

12

Hypothyroid medications

Used to lose weight

13

Medications for diabetes oral

Actos, glucophage (metformin),

Sulfonylureas- increase Beta cells to inc insulin (type 2)
First generation- chlorpropamide
Second generation- Glyburide

Alpha-glucasidase inhibitors- (alpha=glucagon) delay the absorption of glucose

14

How many deaths are contributed to diabetes per year?

234,000

15

Complications of diabetes?
(side effects)

Heart Disease and Stroke
High Blood Pressure
Blindness
Kidney Disease
Nervous System Damage
Amputations
Dental Disease
Pregnancy Complications
Sexual Dysfunction

16

Endocrine

Secretes hormones directly into the circulation

17

Exocrine

Through ducts

18

Hormone concentration over time. How is it released?

Released in cyclic pulses

19

8 endocrine glands/organs?

Hypothalamus
Pituitary
Thyroid
Parathyroid
Thymus
Pancreas
Adrenal
Gonads

20

Goal of endocrine system

Always homeostasis

21

Pineal Gland

Secretes Melatonin
Plays a role in sleep, aging, and reproduction.
May affect mood - SAD

22

Graves disease

Most common form of hyperthyroidism causing immune system to attack the thyroid gland

23

Hyperthyroidism does what to the metabolic rate?

Increases metabolic rate

24

S/S of hyperthyroid

Rapid HR
Anxiety
Difficulty sleeping
Vision impairment
Sweating
Muscle weakness
Weightloss

25

Thyrotoxic Crisis AKA

Thyroid storm (fatal in 48hrs)

26

S/S or Thyrotoxic Crisis

Hyperthermia
Delirium, coma
Tachycardia,
Hypotension
Vomiting
Diarrhea
Irritability

27

Hypothyroidism

Fails to produce or secrete as much thyroxine (T4)

28

Thyroxine (T4) regulates

heart rate, digestion, physical growth, and mental development (an insufficient supply of this hormone can slow life-sustaining processes, damage organs and tissues in every part of the body, and lead to life-threatening complications.)

29

Hypothyroidism does what to the skin?

Causes accumulation of mucinous material in the skin resulting in thickening and coarsening of the skins
-Includes heart and internal organs

30

Parathyroid Glands

Small glands on the posterior later surface of the thyroid gland

31

Thymus gland

T lymphocytes mature here

32

Myasthenia Gravis

"Grave muscle weakness"

33

Pancreas exocrine function

Acini glands that produce pancreatic juice
Duct system that carries pancreatic juices to small intestine

34

Pancreas Endocrine functions

Pancreatic islets (Islets of Langerhans) that produce hormones
Hormones are not released unless there is sugar in the blood….produced as demand is made

35

Type II diabetes

decreased sensitivity

36

What forms Glycosurea?

Increase sugar in the kidney draws water from the bloodstream and pee out glucose

37

Diabetes II Coma

Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Coma

38

Adrenal disorders

Cushing's syndrome
Addison's Disease

39

Adrenal Medula secretes?

Secretes Epi and Norepi

40

Adrenal Cortex function and secretes?

Endocrine only
Secretes Aldosterone and Androgenic hormones

41

Cortisol positive effects

A quick burst of energy for survival reasons
Heightened memory functions
Lower sensitivity to pain
Helps maintain homeostasis in the body

42

Cortisol negative effects

Impaired cognitive performance
Suppressed thyroid function
Blood sugar imbalances such as hyperglycemia
Decreased bone density
Decrease in muscle tissue
Hypertension
Lowered Immune and inflammatory responses causing lowed wound healing, and other health consequences
Increased abdominal fat, associated with MI & CVA
The development of higher levels of “bad” cholesterol (LDL) and lower levels of “good” cholesterol (HDL), which can lead to other health problems!

43

Cushing's syndrome

abnormally high circulating cortisol

44

Addison's disease

Atrophy of the adrenal cortex and minimal production of hormones, aldosterone and adrogenic hormones

45

Addisonian Crisis S/S

Profound hypotension
EKG disturbances - Hyperkalemia