Neurological Emergencies Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Neurological Emergencies Deck (42):
1

Afferent

Sensory nerves

2

Efferent

Motor nerves

3

Cerebral blood supply

From vertebral arteries (20%) and internal carotids (80%)

4

Circle of Willis

Complete circle around brain and pituitary gland
Safeguard if blockage in 1 artery

5

2 Cerebral blood supply factoids

20% of body’s blood to brain
25% of body’s glucose to brain

6

Meninges

Dura mater
Arachnoid mater
Pia mater

7

Cerebellum

Balance, coordination and vision

8

Cerebrum

Language and memory, learning analysis

9

Cerebrum lobe

Frontal- personality
Parietal
Temporal- Speach
Occipital- Vision

10

RAS

Reticular activating system

11

Dorsal nerve root

Afferent

12

Ventral nerve root

Efferent

13

Broca

(expressive) Aphasia
speech is difficult to initiate, non-fluent, labored, and halting

14

Wernicke

(receptive) Aphasia
Speech is preserved, but language content is incorrect.

15

Paralysis

Loss of function, or voluntary movement, typically one side of the body or another

16

Paresthesia

Abnormal sensation felt in body, usually in extremities, often referred to as numbness or tingling

17

Hemiplegia

Paralysis of one lateral half of the body

18

Hemiparesis

Muscular weakness or partial paralysis to one side of the body

19

Aphasia

Unable to speak

20

Aphagia

Unable to swallow

21

AEIOUTIPS

A Alcohol, Anoxia
E Epilepsy – Seizure disorder
I Insulin (hypoglycemia/ hyperglycemia)
O overdose
U uremia (renal failure)
T trauma (head injury and/or hypovolemia)
I infection (CNS, septicemia, septic shock)
P psych (psych meds can alter)
S Stroke, CVA

22

ALOC differential diagnosis in the field

Medical
Trauma
Psychiatric

23

Structural coma

lesions CA, CVA, trauma
(unilateral dysfunction, pupil changes)

24

Metabolic states

Toxic states, drugs, diabetes, hypoxia
(bilateral dysfunction, pupils may be equal)

25

Medulla increased ICP

respiration Altered , pulse decrease, B/P widening PP (kushings triad)

26

TIA

resolves w/in 24 hours
spasm or blockage leading to cell ischemia

27

Stroke

3 hour IV TPA time limit
4 hour from onset of symptoms

28

CVA

Thrombus or Embolus

29

7 "D's"

DETECTION
DISPATCH
DELIVERY
DOOR (ER)
data
decision
drug, IV tpa

30

LASS

age >45
no Hx seizure
onset of symptoms in last 24hrs
Pt was ambulatory at baseline
Blood glucose 60-400
Unilateral asymmetry in 1
-Facial droop
-Grip weakness or absence
-arm drift(pronation)

31

Focal seizure

specific motor, sensory or psychomotor phenomena

32

Jacksonian

clonic convulsive movements or abnormal sensations begining in one hand or foot and "marching" to major muscle group.

33

Psychomotor

Complex partial
Temporal lobe seizures
Seizures characterized by 1-2 minute loss of contact with surroundings (transient ALOC)
Patient staggers or performs complex automatic behaviors, for example; climbing stairs.
May present a sudden unexplained fits of rage
Patient does not understand what is happening and may refuse aid due to confusion for 1 to 2 minutes after seizure
Can be triggered by loud noises or rapid light movement
Often preceded by specific auras (smell, taste or sound)

34

Petite Mal

Absence Seizure- 10-30seconds

35

Status epilepticus

2+ seizures

36

Dystonia

Involuntary muscle contraction and distorted posture

37

ptosis

eye droop

38

Headaches are

Vascular

39

Parkinson's Disease

50K new cases annually

40

GCS =

EVM/eyes, verbal, motor
4,5,6

41

GCS Score

15

42

Infarct, injury, ischemic part of the brain

Penumbra