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Flashcards in Hematology Deck (47):
1

Polyheme

Does not have to be refrigerated and is universal

2

Types of infusion

Whole blood
Packed Red Cell’s
Fresh Frozen Plasma
Clotting Factors

3

What are the 5 areas that form blood

Red bone marrow (all types of erythrocytes formed here)

Yellow bone marrow (produces white cells)

Lymph nodes (produces lymphocytes and antibodies)

Spleen (Stores large quantities of blood & produces lymph, plasma cells and antibodies)

Liver (during intrauterine life)

4

What % of blood is RBC

95%

5

Plasma

fluid portion of blood (92% water)

6

RBC life span

120 days

7

RBC production cycle

Starts with one cell in the red marrow and divides into 16 then develop

8

WBC's

5-10K cells/mm3

9

Platelets

Thrombocytes that travel to site of damage, swell and adhere to damaged vessel wall

Will start clotting cascade if damage too great.

10

Hematocrit

measures fraction of blood volume cantaining RBC's
40-50% in males
35-45% in females

11

Hemoglobin

14-18% in males
12-16% in females

12

Anemia

poor O2- concentration of hemoglobin or RBC's is below normal.

13

Precipitating causes of anemia

Chronic or acute blood loss
Decrease erythrocyte production
Increased destruction of erythrocyte

14

Common forms of anemia

Iron-deficiency anemia
Hemolytic anemia
Aplastic
Pernicious

15

Iron-deficiency anemia

Bone marrow roduces small and pale RBC's with reduced O2 carrying capacity

16

Most common causes of iron deficiency anemia

Menstruation
GI Bleeds – stress, infection, alcoholics
Iron poor diet in kids

17

Hemolytic Anemia types

Inherited and aquired

18

Inherited

Often abnormal rigidity of cell membrane causing smaller cells
Cells trapped in the smaller blood vessels (often spleen) and destroyed by macrophages

19

Examples of Inherited hemolytic anemia

Sickle cell
Thalassemia
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

20

3 conditions of aquired

Normal RBC’s disrupted due to mechanical forces (blood clots, atherosclerosis)
Autoimmune disorders which can destroy RBC’s with antibodies
RBC’s destroyed by microorganisms in the blood (ie malaria)

21

Other anemias

Aplastic
Failure to produce RBC’s
Pernicious (usually inherited)
Lack of vitamin B, needed for cell division

22

Anemia S/S

SOB
Chest pain
Fever
Pale
Fatigue, lethargy
Headaches
Sore mouth or tongue
Brittle nails
Cutaneous bleeding
Bleeding from mucous membranes

23

Anemia Dx

History, blood tests, bone marrow biopsy

24

Leukemia

Cancer of Hematopoietic Cells – abnormal cells develop

25

Leukemia more common

Males and caucasians, children and young adults

26

Leukemia mortality in children

50%

27

Leukemia classified by type of WBC

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)--Usually in kids
Acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML)--Usually middle age adults

28

Leukemia S/S

FREQUENT BRUISING
Fatigue
Infections secondary to low levels of Neutrophils (WBC)
Bone pain
Elevate temperature and diaphoresis
Heat intolerance
Abdominal fullness
Bleeding
Headache
Weight loss
Night sweats
Enlarged lymph nodes, spleen, liver and testes

29

Dx Leukemia

Bone marrow biopsy
Severity assessed by
Degree of liver and spleen enlargement
Anemia
Lack of platelets in the blood

30

Rx of Leukemia

Transfusion of blood and platelets
Antibiotic therapy
Anticancer drugs - chemotherapy
Radiation

31

Lymphomas

Any neoplastic disorder of lymph tissue
Two types
Hodgkin's
Non-Hodgkin’s
Malignant

32

Hodgkin's Lymphoma

Abnormal function of B cells
more common in males, in 20's and then 55-70

33

Hodgkin's S/S

Swollen lymph
Fatigue
Chills
Night sweats

34

Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

Vary in malignancy according to nature and activity of normal cells
At least 10 types
Classified low to high grade
Cause unknown

35

Multiple Myeloma

Malignant neoplasm of the bone marrow
Composed of plasma cells
Production of large amounts of protein
Increases viscosity of blood

36

Multiple Myeloma S/S

Destroys bone tissue causing
Pain – early
Fractures - early
Hypercalcemia
Skeletal deformities

37

Multiple Myeloma

rare before 40

38

Polycythemia

Increase in total RBC mass

39

2 types of polycythemia

Secondary—due to hypoxia
Primary—due to unknown reasons

40

Secondary Polycythemia

Naturally present in people who live or visit high altitude areas

41

Primary Polycythemia

Polycythemia Vera
Condition occurs in those >50 years old
Increased blood production causes blood to thicken and cause hands and feet to have red-purple complexion

42

Hemophilia

Group of inherited bleeding disorders
Loss of 1 of 13 clotting factors

43

Type A and B hemophilia

A—loss of factor VIII – most common
B—loss of factor IX AKA Christmas disease

44

Sickle Cell Disease

Sickle Hemoglobin has a flawed chemical structure that results in erythrocyte deformity when oxygen levels are low.
Chronic Sickle Cell = Chronic Hemolytic Anemia

45

Sickle Cell S/S

PAIN DUE TO HYPOXIA
EXCRUCIATING
BONY DEFORMITIES
Increased weakness
Aching
CP with SOB
Sudden severe abdominal pain
Icteric sclera
Fever
Arthralgia

46

Sickle Cell (vaso-occlusive) Crisis

DEHYDRATION
INFECTION
STRESS
TRAUMA
Exposure to temperature extremes
Hypoxia
Strenuous physical activity

47

Sickle Cell Rx

Treatment – Pain management, oxygen, fluids, rest and normothermic temperature