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Flashcards in endocrine drugs Deck (17):
1

rapid acting insulins

LAG
lispro, aspart, glulisine

2

short acting insulins

regular

3

intermediate acting insulins

NPH

4

long acting insulins

glargine, detemir

5

metformin

- decreased gluconeogenesis
- increased glucolysis and peripheral glucose uptake
- tox: GI upset, lactic acidosis, contraindicated in renal failure (check Cr before)

6

sulfonylureas

close K channel in B cell membrane -- triggering insulin release via Ca influx
- first gen: tolbutamide, chlorpropamide
- second gen: glyburide, glimepiride, glipizide
- risk of hypoglycemia (inc risk in renal failure)
- first gens can cause disulfram-like reaction

7

glitazones

increase insulin sensitivity by binding PPARgamma nuclear transcription factor and increasing adiponectin and GLUT 4 transcription
- can cause weight gain, edema, hepatotox and heart failure

8

alpha-glucosidase inhibitors

acarbose, miglitol
- inhibit brush border enzymes, delayed sugar hydrolysis and glucose absorption
- causes GI disturbances

9

amylin analogs

pramlintide
- decreased gastric emptying, decreased glucagon
- hypoglycemia, nausea, diarrhea

10

SGLT2 inhibitors

- increased urinary glucose by blocking reuptake
- tox: UTIs, symptomatic hypotension (need to assess renal function first)

11

GLP-1 analogs

exenatide, liraglutide
- increase insulin, decrease glucagon release
- tox: n/v, pancreatitis

12

DPP-4 inhibitors

linagliptin, saxagliptin, sitagliptin
- increase insulin, decrease glucagon release
- tox: mild urinary and respiratory tract infections

13

PTU and methimazole

- both block thyroid peroxidase, and PTU blocks 5'deiodinase (peripheral conversion) and is used in preggos
- tox: skin rash, agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, hepatotoxicity (PTU). Methimazole is possible teratogen

14

GH uses

GH deficiency, Turner syndrome

15

somatostatin/octreotide uses

acromegaly, carcinoid tumors, gastrinomas, glucagonomas, esophageal varices

16

demeclocycline

- ADH antagonist (member of tetracycline family)
- used in SIADH
- tox: nephrogenic DI, photosensitivity, abnormalities of bones and teeth

17

glucocorticoids

upregulate PEP caboxylase and G6Phosphatase
also increases glycogen synthase