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Flashcards in Psych Deck (44):
1

positive reinforcement

- positive stimulus increases a behavior

2

negative reinforcement

- removal of a negative stimulus increases a behavior

3

punishment

- averse stimulus stops a behavior

4

extinction

- removal of a positive stimulus stops a behavior

5

transference

- patient projects feelings about others onto physician (psychiatrist is seen as parent)

6

countertransference

- doctor projects feelings about important people onto patient (pt reminds them of a younger sibling)

7

acting out

immature defense, expressing unacceptable feelings and thoughts through actions
- ex: tantrums

8

dissociation

immature defense, temporary, drastic change in personality, memory, consciousness or motor behavior to avoid emotional stress
- extreme forms can result in dissociative identity disorder

9

denial

immature defense, avoid the awareness of some painful reality
- a common reaction in newly diagnosed AIDS/cancer patients

10

displacement

immature defense, transferring avoided ideas and feelings to some neutral person/object
- mother yells at child because her husband yelled at her, husband punches a wall because he is mad at wife

11

projection

immature defense, attributing an unacceptable internal impulse (or ones own feelings) to an external source (or others)
- man who wants another woman thinks his wife is cheating on him, kid whose parents are getting divorced thinks they are mad at him

12

fixation

- immature defense, partially remaining at a more childish level of development
- men fixating on sports games

13

regression

immature defense, turning back the maturational clock and going back to earlier modes of dealing with the world
- seen in children under stress such as illness, punishment, or birth of new sibling (previously toilet trained starts bed wetting)

14

identification

immature defense, modeling behavior after another who is more powerful (although not always admired)
- abused child identifies with abuser

15

isolation of affect

immature defense, separating feelings from ideas and events
- describing murder in graphic detail with no emotional response

16

fantasy

subtituting imaginary scenarios for reality

17

rationalization

immature defense, proclaiming logical reasons for action actually performed for other reasons, usually to avoid self blame
- after getting fired, saying the job wasnt important anyways

18

repression

immature defense, involuntary withholding an idea or feeling from conscious awareness
- not remembering a conflictual or traumatic experience, pressing bad thoughts into the unconscious

19

suppression

mature defense, intentional witholding of an idea or feeling from conscious awareness
- choosing not to worry about the big game until its time to play, choosing not to worry about your step 1 grade

20

altruism

mature defense, alleviating guilty feelings by unsolicited generosity towards others (avoiding negative feelings by helping others)
- mafia boss makes a large charitable donation, alcoholic stops drinking and volunteers

21

humor

mature defense, appreciating the amusing nature of an anxiety provoking or adverse situation
- ex: nervous medical student makes jokes about a test

22

sublimation

mature defense, replacing an unacceptable wish with a course of action that is similar to the wish but does not conflict with one's value system

23

conduct disorder

- repetitive and pervasive d/o of violating basic human rights (physical aggression, vandalism)
- may go on to antisocial personality disorder

24

ODD

- enduring pattern of hostile, defiant behavior toward authority figures in the absence of serious violations of social norms

25

tourettes

need to have symptoms x 1 year, frequently coexists with OCD/ADHD

26

Rett disorder

X linked disorder seen almost exclusively in girls
- symptoms apparent age 1-4, including regression characterized by loss of development, loss of verbal abilities, intellectual disability, ataxia, and stereotyped hand wringing

27

delusional d/o

- fixed, persistent, untrue belief system lasting > 1 month
- functioning not otherwise impaired

28

keeping "schizo" straight

- < 1 month - brief psychotic d/p
- 1-6 months - schizophreniform
- > 6 months - schizophrenia
- + 2 weeks of mood symptoms (must have 2 weeks with solo psychosis) - schizoaffective

29

mania

DIG FAST x 1 week
- distractability, irresponsibility, grandiosity, flight of ideas, increased goal-directed activity/psychomotor agitation, sleep req decreased, talkative/pressured speech

30

Bipolar d/o

Type I - 1 manic episode with or without a hypomanic or depressive episode
Type II - hypomanic and depressive episode

31

dysthymia

2 symptoms of depression x 2 years

32

post partum blues

depressed affect, tearfulness, and fatigue staring 2-3 days after delivery
- usually resolves within 10 days

33

post partum depression

- 10-15% incidence rate
- depression that starts within 4 weeks of delivery, lasts 2 weeks to a year or more

34

pathologic grief

- prolonged greif lasting > 6-12 months or grief that is delayed, inhibited or denied
- may experience depression, delusions or hallucinations

35

generalized anxiety disorder

uncontrollable anxiety for > 6 months unrelated to a specific person, situation or event
- associated with sleep disturbance, fatigue, GI disturbance of difficulty concentrating

36

adjustment d/o

emotional symptoms (anxiety, depression) causing impairment following an identifiable stressor for < 6 months

37

PTSD vs. acute stress disorder

acute stress is 3 days - 1 month, PTSD is more than 1 month

38

narcolepsy

- disordered regualtion of sleep wake cycles
- decreased orexin production in the lateral hypothalamus (hypocretin-1/orexin-A deficiency in the CSF)
- hyponogogic and hyponopompic hallucinations
- sleep starts with REM sleep (REM latency < 15 minutes)
- cataplexy or spontaneous facial movements without emotional triggers
- treat with daytime stimulants (amphetamines, modafinil) and nighttime sodium oxybate (GHB)

39

opioid intox and withdrawal

- intox: euphoria, CNS depression, decreased gag, pupillary constriction and seizures
- w/d: sweating, dilated pupils, piloerection, fever, rhinorrhea, yawning, nausea, stomach cramps, diarrhea

40

barbituates intox and withdrawal

- intox: resp depression
- w/d: delerium, life-threatening CV collapse

41

benzo intox and withdrawal

- intox: ataxia, minor resp depression
- w/d: sleep disturbance, depression, rebound anxiety, seizure, tremors, perceptual disturbances

42

amphetamine intox and withdrawal

- intox: euphoria, grandiosity, pupillary dilation, prolonged wakefulness and attention, HTN, tachycardia, anorexia, paranoia, fever
- w/d: anhedonia, increased appetite, hypersomnolence, existential crisis/severe depression

43

cocaine

- intox: impaired judgement, pupillary dilation, hallucinations, paranoid ideations, angina, sudden cardiac death
- w/d: hypersomnolence, malaise, severe psychological craving, depression/suicidality

44

nicotine

- intox: restlessness
- w/d: irritability, anxiety, craving
- treat withdrawal with buproprion/varenicline (competitive partial agonist of nicotinic Ach receptor that decreases symptoms of withdrawal and increase efficacy of nicotine)