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Flashcards in pathology Deck (52):
1

apoptosis

- DNA laddering is a sensitive indicator of apoptosis - 180bp fragments
- radiation therapy causes apoptosis via free radical formation and dsDNA breakage

2

intrinsic pathway

- inc mitochondrial permeability and cytochorome c release
-Bcl decreased, BAX and BAK increase
- Bcl-2 is anti-apoptotic and inhibts Apaf-1 activation of caspases

3

extrinsic pathway

- via FasL-Fas (CD95) or immune cell release of perforin and granzyme B
- FasL used in thymic negative selection
- FADD binds caspases and activates them
- defects in FasL are responsible for auto-immune diseases

4

chromatolysis

- after axonal injury, inc protein synthesis to repair axon
- round cellular swelling, displacement of the nucleus to the periphery, and dispersion of Nissl throughout the cytoplasm

5

margination and rolling of neutrophils depends on which factors?

- vascular - E and P selectin, GlyCAM-1, CD34
- leukocyte - Sialyl Lewis and L selectin

6

tight binding of neutrophils depends on which factors?

- vasculature - ICAM and VCAM
- leukocyte - CD11/18 integrins, VLA-4 integrin

7

transmigration/diapedesis of leukocyte depends on which factors?

- vasculature - PECAM-1
- leukocyte - PECAM-1 (CD31)

8

chemotactic factors

C5a, IL8 LTB4, kallikrein, platelet activating factor

9

PDGF

secreted by activated platelets and macrophages, induces vascular remodeling and smooth muscle cell migration
- stimulates fibroblast growth for collagen synthesis

10

FGF

- stimulates all aspects of angiogenesis

11

EGF

- stimulates cell growth via tyrosine kinases (EGFR, ERBB2)

12

TGFbeta

angiogenesis, fibrosis, cell cycle arrest

13

metalloproteinases

tissue remodeling - secreted by macrophages - important for instability of atherosclerotic plaques

14

granulomatous diseases

bartonella, berylliosis, Churg-strauss, crohns, fanciesella tularensis, fungal infections (histo, blastomycosis), Wegeners, listeria, M leprae, M tuberculosis, treponema pallidum, sarcoidosis, schistosomiasis

15

granuloma formation

- macrophages secrete IL 12 that induces Th1 cells
- Th1 cells secrete gamma-interferon, activating macrophages
- TNFa from macrophages induce and maintain granuloma formation (check for TB before starting anti-TNFa)

16

deceased ESR

sickle cell, polycythemia, CHF

17

AL amyloidosis

- deposition of Ig Light chains, associated with MM
- nephrotic syndrome, restrictive cardiomyopathy, easy bruising, neuropathy, tongue enlargement

18

AA amyloidosis

- secondary amyloidosis
- seen with chronic conditions (RA, IBD, protracted infection)
- fibrils composed of serum Amyloid A, often multisystem

19

dialysis related amyloidosis

- B2 microglobulin deposits, may present as carpal tunnel
- B2 microglobulin provides structural support for MHC1 and is not filtered by dialysate

20

heritable amyloidosis

- ex: ATTR neuro/cardiac amyloidosis due to transthyretin gene mutation

21

senile systemic amyloidosis

- deposition of normal TTR in myocardium and other sites
- slow progression to dysfunction, usually asymptomatic

22

organ-specific amyloidosis

- alzheimers deposition of amyloid beta
- islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) in DM
- natriuretic peptide in atrial myocytes

23

lipofuscin

yellow-brown pigment associated with normal aging formed by oxidation and polymerization of autophagocytosed organellar membranes
- in the heart, liver, kidney, eye and other organs of old people

24

P glycoprotein

aka multidrug resistant protein (MDR1)
- expressed by some cancer cells to pump out toxins, including chemo
- is an ATP dep efflux pump that esp removes hydrophobic agents like antracyclines

25

cachexia

- mediated by TNFalpha, IFN gamma and IL 6

26

BCR-ABL

- oncogene (tyrosine kinase) associated with CML, ALL

27

bcl-2

- oncogene (anti-apoptotic) associated with follicular and undifferentiated lymphoma

28

BRAF

- oncogene (serine/threonine kinase) associated with melanoma

29

c-kit

oncogene (cytokine receptor) associated with GIST

30

c-myc

oncogene (transcription factor) associated with Burkitt lymphoma

31

Her2/neu

oncogene (tyrosine kinase) associated with breast, ovarian and gastric carcinomas

32

L-myc

oncogene (transcription factor) associated with lung cancer

33

N-myc

oncogene (transcription factor) associated with neuroblastoma

34

ras

oncogene (GTPase) associated with colon, lung and pancreatic cancer

35

ret

oncogene (tyrosine kinase) associated with MEN 2A and 2B

36

CPD4/SMAD4

tumor suppressor gene associated with pancreatic cancer

37

DCC

tumor suppressor gene associated with colon cancer

38

p16

tumor suppressor gene associated with melanoma

39

p53

tumor suppressor gene associated with most human cancers, Li Fraumeni syndrome

40

PTEN

tumor suppressor gene associated with breast, prostate and endometrial cancer

41

Rb

tumor suppressor gene associated with retinoblastoma and osteosarcoma

42

CA 15-3/CA 27-29

marker for breast cancer

43

CEA

marker for colon and pancreatic cancer

44

S-100

marker for neural crest tumors

45

TRAP

marker for hairy cell leukemia

46

paraneoplastic polycythemia

RCC, thymoma, hemangioblastoma, HCC, leiomyoma, pheo

47

paraneoplastic PTHrP

squamous cell carcinoma (lung), RCC, breast cancer

48

paraneoplastic hypercalcemia

Hodgkin lymphoma, some non-hodgkin lymphoma

49

Psammoma bodies seen in

PSaMMoma
- Papillary carcinoma of the the thyroid
- Serous papillary cystadenocarinoma of ovary
- Meningioma
- Malignant mesothelioma

50

what metastasizes to the brain?

lung > breast > GU > osteosarcoma > melanoma > GI

51

what metastasizes to the liver?

colon >> stomach > pancreas

52

what metastasizes to bone?

prostate, breast > lung > thyroid