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Flashcards in Endocrine System Deck (71):
0

What are endocrine glands responsible for?

Manufacture, storage and release of at least 1 hormone

1

What is a "functioning" endocrine tumour?

May allow secretion of too much hormone

2

What is a "non-functioning" endocrine tumour?

A tumour that results in too little hormone being secreted

3

What is the diencephalon?

The central core of the cerebrum, with connections to the right and left hemispheres and the midbrain

4

Where is the hypothalamus?

Dienchephalon Diencephalon = thalamus + hypothalamus

5

Which lies superiorly, the thalamus or the hypothalamus?

Thalamus

6

Which structure lies inferiorly to the hypothalamus?

Brain stem - midbrain, pons, medulla

7

What nerves does the cribiform plate of the ethmoid bone transmit and what do they supply?

Olfactory - sense of smell

8

Which structure connects the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland?

Infundibulum

9

Where is the pituitary gland?

Midline structure in the pituitary fossa of the sphenoid bone

10

Which two hormones are produced by the axons of the hypothalamic neurones which pass into the posterior pituitary?

Oxytocin Vasopressin

11

What hormones are released from the anterior pituitary?

Growth hormone Prolactin Thyroid stimulating hormone Adrenocorticotrophic hormone Lutenising hormone Follicle stimulating hormone

12

What role does the hypothalamus play in regulation of secretions from the anterior pituitary?

Hypothalamic neurones secrete either releasing hormones to promote secretion or release-inhibitory neurones

13

Where do the hypothalamic neurones secrete their hormones into?

Hypophyseal portal system

14

Where does the blood from the anterior pituitary drain into?

Hypophyseal veins and to the SVC

15

Which gland is often referred to as the "master gland"?

Pituitary gland

16

What is a goitre?

An enlarged thyroid gland

17

Which chemical does the thyroid gland use to manufacture it's hormones?

Iodine

18

What are the two hormones secreted by the thyroid gland?

Triiodothyronine Thyroxine

19

What do thyroid hormones regulate?

Metabolism Stimulation of growth

20

Where is the thyroid gland?

Attached to the thyroid cartilage superiorly Passes the cricoid cartilidge bilaterally Right and left lobe meet at the isthmus on the trachea

21

Where are the four parathyroid glands located?

The posterior surfaces of the thyroid glands lobes

22

What does the parathyroid gland secrete and what does this regulate?

Parathyroid hormone This regulates the amount of calcium in blood and bone

23

Which glands are under pituitary control?

Thyroid gland Adrenal cortex Gonads

24

What is the arterial supply of the thyroid and parathyroid glands?

Left and right, inferior and superior thyroid artery

25

What is the venous drainage of the thyroid and parathyroid glands?

Left and right, superior and inferior thyroid veins

26

What are the endocrine cells of the pancreas?

The islets of langerhans

27

Where are the adrenal glands?

Capping the superior ends of the kidneys

28

What are the two parts of the adrenal glands?

Adrenal medulla Adrenal cortex

29

What does the adrenal cortex secrete?

Glucocorticoids Mineralocorticoids Androgens

30

The secretion of which hormone from the adrenal cortex is under pituitary control?

Glucocorticoids

31

What hormones does the adrenal medulla secrete?

Adrenaline Noradrenaline

32

What arteries supply each adrenal gland?

Right and left superior suprarenal artery Right and left middle suprarenal artery Right and left inferior suprarenal artery

33

What are the three paired branches of the abdominal aorta?

Adrenal arteries Renal arteries Gonadal arteries

35

What is the venous drainage of the adrenal glands?

Right suprarenal vein - drains into the IVC Left suprarenal vein - drains into the left renal vein

36

Which structure does the pituitary gland lie immediately inferior to?

Optic chiasm

37

Which cranial nerve is the optic chiasm formed from?

CN2, right and left optic nerve

38

Which route do the optic tracts take once they have crossed in the optic chiasm?

They pass posteriorly from the optic chiasm, and after synapsing in the thalamus the next axons in the chain pass via the optic radiation to the visual cortex

39

Where is the visual cortex located?

Occipital lobe

40

What side of the visual field does the nasal retina get information from?

Temporal side

41

Where is information from the nasal side of the visual field detected?

The temporal retina

42

What effect might a pituitary tumour have on the visual pathway?

Bitemporal hemianopia

43

What is the transcranial approach to accessing the pituitary fossa surgically?

Getting access from the side, under the frontal lobe

44

What is the transsphenoidal approach to accessing the pituitary fossa surgically?

Getting access via the nasal cavities and the sphenoid sinus

45

How does the thyroid gland begin its development embyrologically?

It begins as a midline proliferation at the junction between the anterior 2/3rds of the tongue and the posterior 1/3

46

How does the thyroid gland continue it's development embryologically (after proliferation at the tongue)?

It migrates inferiorly whilst remaining attached to the tongue via the thyroglossal duct

47

At which embryological stage does the thyroid gland reach it's final position?

Week 7

48

Where are the platysma muscles located?

In the superficial fascia immediately deep to the skin on the anterior surface of the neck

49

Which group of muscles do the platysma muscles belong to and which nerve innervates them?

The muscles of facial expression Innervated by the facial nerve (CN7)

50

Which fascial compartment in the neck lies deep to the superficial fascia and encloses all other neck compartments?

Investing fascia

51

Which two muscles are enclosed within the investing (deep) fascia of the neck?

Trapezius Sternocleidomastoid

52

Which fascial compartment of the neck is the thyroid gland located in and what other structures are also contained within it?

Pretracheal fascia Also contains: Strap muscle Trachea Oesophagus Recurrent laryngeal nerves

53

Where is the retropharyngeal space located?

Between the pretracheal fascia and the prevertebral fascia

54

What are the attachments of the sternocleidomastoid?

Mastoid process of temporal bone Manubrium of sternum Clavicle

55

Which nerve supplies the sternocleidomastoid and the trapezius muscle?

CN X1 - the spinal accessory nerve

56

What is contained within the carotid sheath?

Common, then internal carotid artery Internal jugular vein Vagus nerve Deep cervical lymph nodes

57

Which arteries supply the thyroid gland?

Right & left superior and inferior thyroid artries

58

Which artery does the inferior thyroid artery branch from?

Subclavian artery

59

Which artery does the superior thyroid artery branch from?

External carotid artery

60

Which veins drain the thyroid gland?

Right & left superior, middle and inferior thyroid veins

61

Which vein does the superior and middle thyroid veins drain into?

Internal jugular

62

Which vein do the inferior thyroid veins drain into?

Brachiocephalic veins

63

What is the lymphatic drainage of the thyroid and parathyroid glands?

Superior and inferior deep cervical lymph nodes Pretracheal node Paratracheal nodes

64

Where does the right recurrent laryngeal nerve recur?

Under the subclavian artery

65

Where does the left recurrent laryngeal nerve recur?

Under the arch of the aorta

66

What are the names of the strap muscles?

Omohyoid Thyrohyoid Sternohyoid Sternothyroid

67

What structure is being indicated here?

Q image thumb

Thyroid gland

68

Which muscle is being indicated here?

Q image thumb

Thyrohyoid

69

Which muscle is being indicated here?

Q image thumb

Sternothyroid

70

Which muscle is being indicated here?

Q image thumb

Omohyoid

71

Which muscle is being indicated here?

Q image thumb

Sternohyoid