What is the frenulum of the tongue?
Connects the tongue to the gingivae of the lower incisor teeth
Which major salivary gland is supplied by CN IX?
Which major salivary glands are supplied by CN VII?
Submandibular and sublingual glands
Which branch of the facial nerve supplies the submandibular and the sublingual glands?
Which salivary glands are shown in this image?
Parotid (anterior to the eat)
What route does the parotid duct take to reach the oral cavity?
Crosses the masseter
Pierces through the buccinator medially
Opens on the parotid papilla of the buccal mucosa
What is the name of the muscle of the floor of the mouth?
Which foramen is being highlighted here?
Internal acoustic meatus
What are the functions of the chorda tympani branch of the facial nerve?
Parasympathetic nerve supply to the submandibular and sublingual glands
Provides special sense of taste to the anterior 2/3rds of the tongue
Which nerve does chorda tympani connect with later on its course?
Lingual nerve - a branch of CNV3
What is the function of the lingual nerve?
It contains general sensory and special sensory axons from the anterior 2/3rds of the tongue
What is the tongue made of?
Skeletal muscle covered in lingual mucosa
What is the facial canal?
Between the internal acoustic meatus and the stylomastoid foramen, the facial nerve travels in the facial canal
Which features are shown in this image? (top - bottom)
Where is the styloid process of the temporal bone in this image?
What are the structures indicated here and their function?
Top - vallate papillae, contain tastebuds
Bottom - surface texture papillae, for general sensation e.g. touch, temperature etc.
What is the nerve supply of the anterior 2/3 of the tongue?
General - CNV3
Special sense of taste - CNVII
What is the nerve supply of the posterior 1/3 of the tongue?
Both special sense and general - CN IX
What is the foramen caecum and where is it located?
The embryological origin of the thyroid gland
Located at the apex of the 'V' separating the posterior from the anterior part of the tongue
What happens to thyroid swellings when the patient swallows and why?
Moves superiorly then inferiorly due to attachment to the larynx
What are the four extrinsic muscles of the tongue?
Which nerve supplies most of the extrinsic muscles of the tongue and which muscle is the exception?
Hypoglossal nerve CNXII
Palatoglossus - supplied by the vagus nerve CNX
The course of which nerve is shown here?
Passes anteriorly through the neck lateral to the “loop” of the lingual artery (not shown here)
How can you test the function of CNXII clinically?
Ask patient to stick tongue straight out
If there is injury to the nerve, the tongue will deviate to the injured side
What is the vermillon border?
The border between the lip and the "normal" skin of the face
This is the first transformation from "normal" skin to mucosa
What do the arches of the soft palate consist of?
Skeletal muscle covered in mucosa
Which kind of epithelium covers the hard palate and why?
Keratinised stratified squamous epithelium
Provides some protection against mechanical injury
Which kind of epithelium covers the soft palate?
Non-keratinised stratified squamous epithelium
What bones are being shown here?
Which foramina is being indicated here and which nerve does it transmit?
In what ways does the soft palate function as a trapdoor?
Stops food entering the nose during swallowing
Directs air into the nose or the mouth during speech, sneezing, coughing & vomiting
Helps to close off the entrance into the oropharynx during the gag reflex
What are the five pairs of muscles of the soft palate?
Levator veli palantini
Tensor veli palantini
What is the function of the tensor veli palantini?
Tenses the soft palate by using the pterygoid hamulus as a pulley to pull each side of the palate laterally before elevating it
What is the function of the levator veli palantini?
Elevates the soft palate
What is the function of the palatoglossus?
Depresses the palate towards the tongue or vice versa
What is the palatopharyngeus?
A longitudinal muscle of the pharynx that attaches between the palate and the larynx
Which nerve supplies the skeletal muscles of the soft palate and which muscle is the exception?
Vagus nerve CN X
Exception - tensor veli palinitini, supplied by CNV3
How can the function of CN X and CN V3 be tested clinically?
Ask the patient to say 'ah'
Uvula should be pulled up towards the midline
If there is injury, the uvula will be pulled away from the injured side
What are the regional lymph nodes for the tip of the tongue?