Salivary glands, tongue and palate Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > Salivary glands, tongue and palate > Flashcards

Flashcards in Salivary glands, tongue and palate Deck (39):
1

What is the frenulum of the tongue?

Connects the tongue to the gingivae of the lower incisor teeth

2

Which major salivary gland is supplied by CN IX?

Parotid gland

3

Which major salivary glands are supplied by CN VII?

Submandibular and sublingual glands

4

Which branch of the facial nerve supplies the submandibular and the sublingual glands?

Chorda tympani

5

Which salivary glands are shown in this image?

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Parotid (anterior to the eat)

Submandibular

6

What route does the parotid duct take to reach the oral cavity?

Crosses the masseter

Pierces through the buccinator medially

Opens on the parotid papilla of the buccal mucosa

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7

What is the name of the muscle of the floor of the mouth?

Mylohyoid

8

Which foramen is being highlighted here?

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Internal acoustic meatus

9

What are the functions of the chorda tympani branch of the facial nerve?

Parasympathetic nerve supply to the submandibular and sublingual glands

Provides special sense of taste to the anterior 2/3rds of the tongue

10

Which nerve does chorda tympani connect with later on its course?

Lingual nerve - a branch of CNV3

 

11

What is the function of the lingual nerve?

It contains general sensory and special sensory axons from the anterior 2/3rds of the tongue

12

What is the tongue made of?

Skeletal muscle covered in lingual mucosa

13

What is the facial canal?

Between the internal acoustic meatus and the stylomastoid foramen, the facial nerve travels in the facial canal

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14

Which features are shown in this image? (top - bottom)

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15

Where is the styloid process of the temporal bone in this image?

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16

What are the structures indicated here and their function?

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Top - vallate papillae, contain tastebuds

Bottom - surface texture papillae, for general sensation e.g. touch, temperature etc.

17

What is the nerve supply of the anterior 2/3 of the tongue?

General - CNV3

Special sense of taste - CNVII

18

What is the nerve supply of the posterior 1/3 of the tongue?

Both special sense and general - CN IX

19

What is the foramen caecum and where is it located?

The embryological origin of the thyroid gland

Located at the apex of the 'V' separating the posterior from the anterior part of the tongue

20

What happens to thyroid swellings when the patient swallows and why?

 Moves superiorly then inferiorly due to attachment to the larynx

21

What are the four extrinsic muscles of the tongue?

Palatoglossus

Genioglossus

Styloglossus

Hyoglossus

22

Which nerve supplies most of the extrinsic muscles of the tongue and which muscle is the exception?

Hypoglossal nerve CNXII

Palatoglossus - supplied by the vagus nerve CNX

23

The course of which nerve is shown here?

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Hypoglossal CNXII

Passes anteriorly through the neck lateral to the “loop” of the lingual artery (not shown here)

 

24

How can you test the function of CNXII clinically?

Ask patient to stick tongue straight out

If there is injury to the nerve, the tongue will deviate to the injured side

25

What is the vermillon border?

The border between the lip and the "normal" skin of the face

This is the first transformation from "normal" skin to mucosa

26

What do the arches of the soft palate consist of?

Skeletal muscle covered in mucosa

27

Which kind of epithelium covers the hard palate and why?

Keratinised stratified squamous epithelium

Provides some protection against mechanical injury

28

Which kind of epithelium covers the soft palate?

Non-keratinised stratified squamous epithelium

29

What bones are being shown here?

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30

Which foramina is being indicated here and which nerve does it transmit?

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31

In what ways does the soft palate function as a trapdoor?


Stops food entering the nose during swallowing

Directs air into the nose or the mouth during speech, sneezing, coughing & vomiting

Helps to close off the entrance into the oropharynx during the gag reflex
 

32

What are the five pairs of muscles of the soft palate?

Levator veli palantini

Tensor veli palantini

Palatoglossus

Palatopharyngeus

Musculis uvulae

33

What is the function of the tensor veli palantini?

Tenses the soft palate by using the pterygoid hamulus as a pulley to pull each side of the palate laterally before elevating it

34

What is the function of the levator veli palantini?

Elevates the soft palate

35

What is the function of the palatoglossus?

Depresses the palate towards the tongue or vice versa

36

What is the palatopharyngeus?

A longitudinal muscle of the pharynx that attaches between the palate and the larynx

37

Which nerve supplies the skeletal muscles of the soft palate and which muscle is the exception?

Vagus nerve CN X

Exception - tensor veli palinitini, supplied by CNV3

38

How can the function of CN X and CN V3 be tested clinically?

Ask the patient to say 'ah'

Uvula should be pulled up towards the midline

If there is injury, the uvula will be pulled away from the injured side

39

What are the regional lymph nodes for the tip of the tongue?

Submental nodes