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Flashcards in Nerves Deck (36):
1

What are the components of the central nervous system?

Brain
Spinal cord

2

What are the components of the peripheral nervous system?

Cranial nerves
Spinal nerves
Autonomic nerves

3

What is the purpose of autonomic nerves?

Provide communication between brain and organs

4

What is a group of nerve cell bodies in the CNS called?

A nucleus

5

What is a group of nerve cell bodies in the PNS called?

A ganglion

6

What is the name given to a bundle of axons travelling together in the CNS?

A tract

7

What is the name given to a bundle of axons travelling together in the PNS?

A peripheral nerve

8

What is the axon or nerve fibre?

An "electrical cable" conveying the action potentials

9

When is the term "nerve" used?

When referring to a peripheral nerve

10

What is the myelin sheath?

An electrical insulator

11

Does a myelinated or an unmyelinated nerve conduct action potentials faster?

Myelinated

12

What is a peripheral nerve?

A bundle of axons wrapped in connective tissue travelling together to/from the same region of the body or structure

13

What is the outermost layer of the cerebral hemispheres called?

Cerebral neocortex (cortex for short)

14

What is the name given to the fissure which separates the two cerebral hemispheres sagittally?

The longitudinal fissure

15

Which cranial nerves could a pathology in the jugular foramen injure?

CNS IX, X and XI

16

Why is the area of the brain deep to the grey matter coloured white?

It contains many axons which are myelinated and the myelin gives the whiter appearance

17

In the spinal cord, which is deep and which is superficial of the white and grey matter?

White matter is superficial
Grey matter is deep

18

Which structure does the spinal cord pass through to connect with the brain?

Foramen magnum of the occipital bone

19

At which level does the spinal cord end?

L1/L2

20

What is the cauda equina?

Lumbar and sacral spinal roots that descend in the vertebral canal to their respective intervertebral foraminae

21

Which anterior rami mix to make the brachial plexus?

C5-T1

22

What are the five named nerves that stem from the brachial plexus?

Musculocutaneous nerve
Axillary nerve
Median nerve
Radial nerve
Ulnar nerve

23

Which cranial nerves contain parasympathetic axons?

3, 7, 9 and 10

24

What are the structures of the soma (superficial to deep)?

Skin
Fascia
Skeletal muscle
Skeleton
Internal lining of body cavities e.g. parietal pleura

25

What is the name given to the receptors which detect pain?

Nociceptors

26

Which part of the brain is the primary somatosensory area?

Parietal lobe

27

Which part of the brain is the primary somatomotor area?

Frontal lobe

28

How many neurones are in the somatic motor pathway?

2 neurones

29

What is a reflex?

An extremely rapid, involuntary response to a potentially harmful stimulus

30

What is paralysis?

A muscle without a functioning lower motorneurone is paralysed

31

On examination of a paralysed muscle, what could be noted about the muscle tone?

Reduced muscle tone - reduced resistance to stretch?

32

What is spasticity?

When a muscle has an intact and functioning lower motorneurone but the descending controls of the brain are not working, and so the muscle over-contracts continuously

33

On examination of a spastic muscle, what could be noted about the muscle tone?

Increased tone

34

Which part of the spinal cord do sympathetic axons descend in?

White matter

35

Which segments of the spinal cord have lateral horns and why?

T1-L2
To accommodate sympathetic neurones

36

Which structures in the body wall does the sympathetic system supply?

Skin sweat glands
Skin arrector muscles
All arterioles