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Flashcards in Osteology Deck (55):
1

How many ribs are there?

12

2

What is the vertebral body?

The weight bearing part of the vertebra

3

How are vertebral bodies linked to adjacent vertebral bodies?

By vertebral discs and ligaments

4

What does the posterior arch of the vertebra consist of?

Pedicles, laminae, transverse processes, spinous process

5

What are the pedicals of the vertebrae?

Bony pillars that attach the vertebral arch to the vertebral body

6

What are the laminae of the vertebrae?

Flat sheets of bone that extend from the pedicle to meet in the midline and form the roof of the posterior arch

7

What is the vertebral foramen?

When combined, all of the vertebral foramen of the vertebrae form the vertebral canal or spinal canal where the spinal cord travels

8

What is the spinous process of the vertebra?

A bony projection that projects posteriorly and provides a site for ligament attachment

9

What are the transverse processes of the vertebra?

Bony projections that extend posterolaterally to provide a site for rib attachment

10

What are the superior and inferior articular processes of the vertebra?

Projections extending from the pedicles and laminae to articulate with the superior and inferior articular processes of adjacent vertebrae

11

What two parts of the rib do the costal facets articulate with?

Rib head and rib tubercle

12

What kind of joints are the intervertebral discs?

Secondary cartilaginous joints

13

What is the outer layer/component of the intervertebral disc called and what does it consist of?

Anulus fibrosus - fibrocartilidge

14

What is the inner layer/component of the intervertebral disc called and what does it consist of?

Nucleus pulposus - soft centre like the pulp in teeth

15

What is a "slipped disc"?

Herniation of the intervertebral disc - the nucleus pulposus herniates through the anulus fibrosis

16

Which rib is at the level of the sternal angle?

Rib 2

17

What is the name of the process on C2 that allows rotation of the head?

Odontoid process

18

How many "true" ribs are there?

6

19

Which ribs are the false ribs?

7-10

20

Which ribs are the floating ribs?

11 & 12

21

What are the functions of bone?

Support & protection of the organs within the body cavities
Calcium metabolism
Blood cell formation
Attachment for muscles

22

What is the name given to the process by which "long bones", e.g. femur, develop?

Endochondral ossification

23

What happens in endochondral ossification?

A cartilage "model" of the bone is gradually replaced by bone

24

What is the diaphysis of the developing bone?

The shaft

25

What is at the proximal and distal ends of the diaphysis of the developing bone?

Epiphysis

26

What is between the epiphysis and the diaphysis of the developing bone?

Epiphyseal growth plate

27

What is the metaphysis of the developing bone?

The small section of diaphysis closest to the growth plate

28

What are the two types of bone?

Compact
Spongy

29

What is the function of compact bone?

Provides bone strength for weight bearing

30

Why does the neck of the femur commonly fracture?

Made of less compact bone

31

What is the marrow/medullary cavity of bones?

Location of bone marrow, where red blood cells can be made

32

What is the periosteum?

The outer layer of bone

33

Why is tearing of the periosteum, which occurs in bone fractures, painful?

It contains sensory nerve fibres

34

Where is the greater trochanter of the femur?

The proximal end of the shaft, superolaterally

35

Where is the lesser trochanter of the femur?

The proximal end of the shaft, inferomedially

36

What is the tibial tuberosity?

The most medial part of the tibia

37

What are the lateral and medial malleoluses?

The bony protruberances of the ankle

38

How many fossae is the brain divided into?

3 - anterior, middle, posterior

39

What is the glenoid fossa of the scapula?

Where the head of the humerus articulates with the scapula at the shoulder joint

40

What makes up the axial skeleton?

Bones of the skull
Bones of the neck
Bones of the trunk

41

What makes up the appendicular skeleton?

Bones of the upper limb
Bones of the pectoral girdle
Bones of the lower limb
Bones of the pelvic girdle

42

What does the zygoma/zygomatic bone form in the facial skeleton?

Prominence of the cheek

43

What is the condyle of the mandible?

The head and neck - articulation with the temporal bone

44

What is the mental process of the mandible?

The chin

45

What is the coronoid process of the mandible?

It is inferior to the zygomatic bone and posterior to the maxilla

46

What is the suture between the frontal bone and the parietal bone called?

Coronal suture

47

Where is the sphenoid bone?

Between the maxilla and the temportal bone

48

Where is the occipital bone?

Posterior

49

Where is the sagittal suture?

Between the left and right parietal bone

50

What is the Le Fort 1 fracture of the facial skeleton?

Fracture across the maxilla

51

What is the Le Fort 3 fracture of the facial skeleton?

Complete separation of the facial skeleton from the bones of the neurocranium - above the orbits, below the ears

52

How many verterbrae are there and what are they?

33 in total:
7 cervical
12 thoracic
5 lumbar
5 sacral (fused to form 1 sacrum)
4 coccygeal (fused to form 4 coccyx)

53

Which joints allow vertebrae to articulate with each other?

Facet joints

54

Which two parts of the humerus are easily fractured?

The neck
Supra-epicondylar ridges (just proximal to the epicondyles)

55

What are the eight carpal bones in the hand?

Scaphoid
Lunate
Triquetrum
Pisiform
Trapezoid
Trapezium
Capitate
Hamate