Flashcards in Osteology Deck (55)
How many ribs are there?
What is the vertebral body?
The weight bearing part of the vertebra
How are vertebral bodies linked to adjacent vertebral bodies?
By vertebral discs and ligaments
What does the posterior arch of the vertebra consist of?
Pedicles, laminae, transverse processes, spinous process
What are the pedicals of the vertebrae?
Bony pillars that attach the vertebral arch to the vertebral body
What are the laminae of the vertebrae?
Flat sheets of bone that extend from the pedicle to meet in the midline and form the roof of the posterior arch
What is the vertebral foramen?
When combined, all of the vertebral foramen of the vertebrae form the vertebral canal or spinal canal where the spinal cord travels
What is the spinous process of the vertebra?
A bony projection that projects posteriorly and provides a site for ligament attachment
What are the transverse processes of the vertebra?
Bony projections that extend posterolaterally to provide a site for rib attachment
What are the superior and inferior articular processes of the vertebra?
Projections extending from the pedicles and laminae to articulate with the superior and inferior articular processes of adjacent vertebrae
What two parts of the rib do the costal facets articulate with?
Rib head and rib tubercle
What kind of joints are the intervertebral discs?
Secondary cartilaginous joints
What is the outer layer/component of the intervertebral disc called and what does it consist of?
Anulus fibrosus - fibrocartilidge
What is the inner layer/component of the intervertebral disc called and what does it consist of?
Nucleus pulposus - soft centre like the pulp in teeth
What is a "slipped disc"?
Herniation of the intervertebral disc - the nucleus pulposus herniates through the anulus fibrosis
Which rib is at the level of the sternal angle?
What is the name of the process on C2 that allows rotation of the head?
How many "true" ribs are there?
Which ribs are the false ribs?
Which ribs are the floating ribs?
11 & 12
What are the functions of bone?
Support & protection of the organs within the body cavities
Blood cell formation
Attachment for muscles
What is the name given to the process by which "long bones", e.g. femur, develop?
What happens in endochondral ossification?
A cartilage "model" of the bone is gradually replaced by bone
What is the diaphysis of the developing bone?
What is at the proximal and distal ends of the diaphysis of the developing bone?
What is between the epiphysis and the diaphysis of the developing bone?
Epiphyseal growth plate
What is the metaphysis of the developing bone?
The small section of diaphysis closest to the growth plate
What are the two types of bone?
What is the function of compact bone?
Provides bone strength for weight bearing
Why does the neck of the femur commonly fracture?
Made of less compact bone
What is the marrow/medullary cavity of bones?
Location of bone marrow, where red blood cells can be made
What is the periosteum?
The outer layer of bone
Why is tearing of the periosteum, which occurs in bone fractures, painful?
It contains sensory nerve fibres
Where is the greater trochanter of the femur?
The proximal end of the shaft, superolaterally
Where is the lesser trochanter of the femur?
The proximal end of the shaft, inferomedially
What is the tibial tuberosity?
The most medial part of the tibia
What are the lateral and medial malleoluses?
The bony protruberances of the ankle
How many fossae is the brain divided into?
3 - anterior, middle, posterior
What is the glenoid fossa of the scapula?
Where the head of the humerus articulates with the scapula at the shoulder joint
What makes up the axial skeleton?
Bones of the skull
Bones of the neck
Bones of the trunk
What makes up the appendicular skeleton?
Bones of the upper limb
Bones of the pectoral girdle
Bones of the lower limb
Bones of the pelvic girdle
What does the zygoma/zygomatic bone form in the facial skeleton?
Prominence of the cheek
What is the condyle of the mandible?
The head and neck - articulation with the temporal bone
What is the mental process of the mandible?
What is the coronoid process of the mandible?
It is inferior to the zygomatic bone and posterior to the maxilla
What is the suture between the frontal bone and the parietal bone called?
Where is the sphenoid bone?
Between the maxilla and the temportal bone
Where is the occipital bone?
Where is the sagittal suture?
Between the left and right parietal bone
What is the Le Fort 1 fracture of the facial skeleton?
Fracture across the maxilla
What is the Le Fort 3 fracture of the facial skeleton?
Complete separation of the facial skeleton from the bones of the neurocranium - above the orbits, below the ears
How many verterbrae are there and what are they?
33 in total:
5 sacral (fused to form 1 sacrum)
4 coccygeal (fused to form 4 coccyx)
Which joints allow vertebrae to articulate with each other?
Which two parts of the humerus are easily fractured?
Supra-epicondylar ridges (just proximal to the epicondyles)