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Flashcards in Upper limb Deck (95):
1

What are the five named nerves in the brachial plexus?

Musculocutaneous

Axillary

Radial

Median

Ulnar

2

Which nerve supplies the muscles of the anterior arm?

Musculucutaneous

3

Which nerve supplies the muscle of the posterior arm?

Radial

4

Which nerve supplies the majority of muscles in the anterior forearm and the thumb?

Median

5

Which muscles does the axillary nerve supply?

Deltoid Teres minor

6

What bony structure does the ulnar nerve pass posterior to at the elbow?

Medial epicondyle

7

Which nerve supplies the posterior arm and forearm?

Radial

8

What does the subclavian artery become as it travels distally in the upper limb?

Axillary, then brachial, then bifurcates to become the radial and ulnar arteries, which combine to form the palmar arches in the hand, and finally become digital arteries

9

What are end arteries?

E.g. digital arteries Arteries with no other anastomotic branches getting to the area which is being supplied

10

Where are superficial veins found?

In the superficial fascia

11

Where are the deep veins in the upper limb found?

In the compartments, deep to the deep fascia

12

What are the main two superficial veins in the upper limb which emerge from the dorsal venous network?

Cephalic vein

Basilic vein

13

Which superficial vein runs along the lateral aspect of the forearm?

Cephalic vein

14

Which superficial vein runs along the medial aspect of the forearm?

Basilic vein

15

What is the name of the vein that connects the cephalic vein and the basilic vein?

Median cubital vein

16

Which vein does the basilic vein drain into?

Axillary vein, which becomes subclavian vein

17

Which vein does the cephalic vein drain into?

Subclavian vein

18

What are the origins of the deltoid muscle?

Lateral third of the clavicle

Spine of the scapula

19

What is the insertion of the deltoid muscle?

Deltoid tuberosity of the humerus

20

Which movement does the posterior fibres of the deltoid muscle bring about?

Extension of the shoulder

21

Which movement does the medial fibres of the deltoid muscle bring about?

Abduction of the shoulder

22

Which movement does the anterior fibres of the deltoid muscle bring about?

Flexion of the shoulder

23

Which muscles are involved in extension of the shoulder?

Triceps

Posterior fibres of the deltoid muscle

Latissmus dorsi

24

What muscles are within the anterior compartment of the arm?

Biceps brachii

Brachialis

Coracobrachialis

25

What are the attachments of the biceps brachii?

Glenoid fossa of the scapula

Coracoid process of the scapula

Distally, attaches to radial tuberosity and deep fascia of the forearm

26

Other than flexion, what movement does the biceps brachii bring about and how is this possible?

Supination, due to attachment to the radial tuberosity

27

Which muscle makes up the posterior compartment of the arm?

Triceps

28

What movements does the triceps allow?

Extension of the elbow

Extension of the shoulder

29

What movements do the muscles of the anterior forearm allow?

Flexion of wrist

Flexion of digits

Wrist abduction and adduction

Pronation of forearm

30

What is the action of the pronator teres?

Pronates forearm and flexes elbow

31

What are the attachments of the pronator teres?

Medial epicondyle

Pronator tuberosity of radius

32

Which nerve innervates the pronator teres?

Median nerve

33

What is the action of the flexor carpi radialis?

Flexes wrist and abducts hand

34

What are the attachments of the flexor carpi radialis?

Medial epicondyle

Base of 2nd metacarpal

35

Which nerve innervates the flexor carpi radialis?

Median nerve

36

What is the action of the flexor carpi ulnaris?

Flexes wrist and adducts hand

37

What are the attachments of the flexor carpi ulnaris?

Medial epicondyle

Pisiform and 5th metacarpal

38

Which nerve innervates the flexor carpi ulnaris?

Ulnar

39

Which nerve innervates the deltoid muscle?

Axillary

40

Which nerve innervates the teres minor?

Axillary

41

Which nerve innervates the subscapularis?

Upper & lower subscapular nerves

42

Which nerve innervates the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles?

Suprascapular nerve

43

Which nerve innervates the biceps brachii?

Musculocutaneous nerve

44

What is the common origin of all extensor muscles of the forearm?

Lateral epicondyle

45

What compartment is the extensor compartment of the forearm?

The dorsal compartment

46

What is the common origin of all flexor muscles of the forearm?

Medial epicondyle

47

What are the four muscles of the rotator cuff?

Supraspinatus Infraspinatus Teres minor Subscapularis

48

Where does the supraspinatus muscle originate and insert?

Supraspinous fossa Inserts to greater tuberosity of humerus

49

Which muscles does the suprascapular nerve supply?

Supraspinatus Infraspinatus

50

What movement does the supraspinatus muscle allow?

Abduction of the arm

51

What movement does the infraspinatus muscle allow?

External rotation of the arm

52

Where does the infraspinatus muscle originate and insert?

Infraspinous fossa Inserts to greater tuberosity of humerus

53

Which nerve supplies the teres minor?

Axillary

54

What are the origins and insertions of the teres minor?

Dorsal surface of lateral border of scapula Greater tuberosity of humerus

55

What are the origins and insertions of the subscapularis muscle?

Subscapular fossa/anterior surface of scapula Lesser tuberosity of humerus/shoulder capsule

56

Which nerves innervate the subscapularis muscle?

Subscapular nerve (upper & lower)

57

Which ligaments hold the bones of the elbow joint together?

Medial collateral Lateral collateral Annular ligament

58

Where is the annular ligament located??

Around the radial head, holding it to the ulna

59

Where are the extrinsic muscles of the hand located?

In the anterior and posterior compartments of the forearm

60

Which muscles are responsible for fine motor functions of the hand?

Intrinsic muscles

61

What are the names of the three thenar muscles?

Opponens pollicis Flexor pollicis brevis Adbuctor pollicis brevis

62

Which nerve innervates the thenar muscles?

Median

63

What is the most lateral thenar muscle?

Opponens pollicis

64

What is the middle thenar muscle?

Abductor pollicis brevis

65

What are the two hypothenar muscles and what do they move?

Flexor digiti minimi brevis Abductor digiti minimi (main one) Moves the little finger

66

What movements do the interossei muscles allow?

Flexion of MCPJs Extension of IPJs Dorsal allow abduction at MCPJs Palmar adduct fingers at MCPJs

67

Which flexor tendon/extrinsic flexor muscle of the fingers allows flexion at PIPJs?

Flexor digitorum superficialis

68

Which flexor tendon/extrinsic flexor muscle of fingers allows flexion at DIPJs?

Flexor digitoruim profundis

69

Which structure does the flexor tendons pass through to reach the fingers?

Carpal tunnel

70

How are the flexor tendons trained to phalanges/metacarpals?

Pulley systems

71

What are the two kinds of flexor pulley?

Annular ligaments Cruciate pulleys

72

What are the two most biomechanically important annular ligaments?

A2 & A4: critical to prevent bowstringing

73

Which pulley is most commonly involved in trigger finger?

A1

74

Which pulleys overlie the MP, PIP and DIP joints respectively?

A1, A3 & A5

75

What is the function of the cruciate pulleys?

To prevent sheath collapse and expansion during digital motion

76

What is the function of the palmar fascia?

Separates the palmar muscle bellies and flexor tendons from the skin

77

What is the brachial plexus?

A network of the ventral rami of the lower four cervical nerves and first thoracic nerve roots (C5-C8, T1) It proceeds through the neck, the axilla, and into the arm These nerve roots form and give off the peripheral nerves that supply the upper arm, forearm and hand

78

How do the nerves of the brachial plexus divide from roots to each of the branches?

Roots

Trunks

Divisions

Cords

Branches

79

Which muscle of the shoulder is being indicated here?

Q image thumb

Coracobrachialis

80

Which two ligaments make up this structure here on the lateral aspect of the elbow joint?

Q image thumb

Radial collateral ligament

Annular ligament

81

Which ligament at the elbow joint allows the radial head to rotate?

Annular ligament

82

Which three muscles flex the elbow?

Brachialis

Biceps brachii

Brachioradialis

83

Which muscle of the medial aspect of the elbow is being indicated here?

Q image thumb

Pronator teres

84

Which two muscles produce pronation of the forearm?

Pronator teres

Pronator quadratus

85

On which side of the elbow the common flexor origin found?

Medial

86

Which muscle of the anterior forearm is being indicated here? (Right arm)

Q image thumb

Flexor carpi radialis

87

Which muscle of the anterior forearm is being indicated here? (Right arm)

Q image thumb

Flexor carpi ulnaris

88

Which mucsle is being elevated here in the anterior forearm and where does it arise and insert?

Q image thumb

Palmaris longus

Medial epicondyle

Palmar aponeurosis

89

Which muscle is being indicated here?

Q image thumb

Biceps brachii

90

Which muscle of the anterior aspect of the elbow is being inidacted here?

Q image thumb

Pronator teres

91

Which muscle at the lateral aspect of the elbow and forearm is being shown here?

Q image thumb

Extensor carpi radialis longus

92

Which muscle on the lateral aspect of the elbow is being indicated here?

Q image thumb

Extensor carpi radialis brevis

93

Which structures are being indicated here? (Right arm)

Q image thumb

1. Cephalic vein

2. Basilic vein

94

Which structure on the anterior aspect of the arm is being indicated here?

Q image thumb

Median nerve

95

What is the nerve innervation of the trapezius?

Accessory nerve CN XI