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Flashcards in Lower limb Deck (151):
1

The bony prominence at the distal end of which bone gives rise to the medial malleolus?

Tibia

2

Which bones are involved in the knee joint?

Patella

Femur

Tibia

3

Which structures make up the hip bone?

Ileum

Ischium

Pubic bones

4

What is a sesamoid bone and give an example?

A bone found within the tendon of a muscle e.g. the patella found in the quadriceps tendon

5

How many bones are in each section of the foot, proximal - distal?

7 tarsal bones

5 metatarsal bones

14 phalanges

6

What structures make up the hip joint?

Articulation between head of the femur and acetabulum of the hip bone

7

What is the talus?

The (tarsal) bone of the foot that articulates with the tibia and fibula to make the ankle joint

8

What is the calcaneus?

"Heel" bone

9

Which bones make up the 'hindfoot'?

Calcaneus

Talus

10

Which bones make up the 'midfoot'?

Navicular

Cuboid

Medial cunciform

Intermediate cunciform

Lateral cunciform

11

Which bones make up the 'forefoot'?

Metatarsals and phalanges

12

What is the midtarsal joint or transverse talar joint?

The joint between the talus, the calcaneus and the other tarsal bones

13

What is the subtalar joint?

The joint between the talus and the calcaneus

14

What is the intertrochanteric line?

A line between the greater and lesser trochanters of the femur This is the site of attachment of the fibrous capsule

15

Where do the anterior cruciate ligament and the posterior cruciate ligament attach?

Intercondylar eminence of the tibia Femoral condyles

16

Where is the deltoid ligament found?

Medial aspect of the ankle between the tibia and the talus

17

What movement do the muscles of the anterior compartment of the thigh allow?

Flexion at hip Extension of knee

18

What are the insertions of the quadriceps muscle?

Tibial tuberosity

Ilium

Body of the femur

19

What four muscles make up the quadriceps?

Rectus femoris

Vastus lateralis

Vastus intermedius

Vastus medialis

20

Which muscles make up the anterior compartment of the thigh?

Sartorius

Quadriceps

Iliopsoas

21

Which nerve supplies the anterior compartment of the thigh?

Femoral nerve L2, L3, L4

22

What movement does the muscles of the medial compartment of the thigh allow?

Adduction of the hip

23

What nerve supplies the muscles of the medial compartment of the thigh?

Obturator nerve, L2, L3, L4

24

How does the obturator nerve travel from the lumbar plexus to the medial compartment of the thigh?

Through the obturator foramen within the anterior aspect of the pelvis

25

What movements do the muscles of the posterior compartment of the thigh allow?

Extension of hip

Flexion of knee

26

Where are the attachments of the muscles of the medial compartment of the thigh?

Pubic bone (medially)

Shaft of the femur

27

How many muscles make up the 'hamstrings'?

3

28

What are the attachments of the hamstrings?

Ischial tuberosity

1 attaches to fibula

2 attach to tibia

29

What nerve supplies the posterior compartment of the thigh?

Sciatic nerve, L4-S3

30

How does the sciatic nerve travel from the spinal cord to the posterior compartment of the thigh?

Forms in the sacral plexus Passes through the greater sciatic foramen into the gluteal region

31

What are the extensor retinaculum and what do they do?

Ligamentous structures found at the distal end of the lower limb between the fibia and the tibula, holding the tendons in place

32

What movements do the muscles of the anterior compartment of the leg allow?

Dorsiflexion at the ankle

Extension of toes

Inversion (at subtalar and midtarsal joints)

33

Which nerve supplies the anterior compartment of the leg?

Deep fibular nerve

This is a branch of the sciatic

34

What movement do the muscles of the lateral compartment of the leg allow?

Eversion of the foot

35

Which nerve supplies the lateral compartment of the leg?

Superficial fibular nerve

This is a branch of the sciatic

36

What movements do the muscles of the posterior compartment of the leg allow?

Plantar flexion

Inversion

Flexion of toes

37

Which nerve supplies the posterior compartment of the leg?

Tibial nerve

This is a branch of the sciatic

38

What are the attachments of the gluteus maximus

Femur and ileotibial tract - laterally

Posterior aspect of the ileum

Sacrum

39

What movement does the gluteus maximus allow?

Extension of the hip

40

Which muscles are revealed when the gluteus maximus is reflected?

Gluteus medius

Gluteus minimus

41

What are the attachments of the gluteus minimus and medius?

Greater trochanter of the femur

Posterior aspect of ileum

Sacrum

42

Which movement do the gluteus minimus and the gluteus medius allow?

Abduction of the hip

43

Which movement do the muscles deep to the gluteus minimus and medius allow?

External rotation of hip

44

Which nerve travels through the greater sciatic foramen and supplies the perineum?

Pudendal nerve

45

What is the pisiformis muscle?

A named muscle in the deeper muscles of the gluteal area which travels through the greater sciatic foramen

46

How does the femoral nerve pass into the anterior compartment of the thigh?

Passes through the inguinal ligament

47

What is the biggest nerve in the body?

Sciatic nerve

48

Which nerve supplies the intrinsic muscles of the foot?

Tibial

This is a branch of the sciatic

49

Which two nerves does the sciatic nerve become and where does the splitting occur?

Common fibular

Tibial

Happens at posterior aspect of knee

50

What are the names of the branches that the common fibular nerve divides into?

Deep and superficial fibular

51

Where does the common fibular nerve travel in the leg?

Winds onto the anterior aspect of the leg around the fibular head

52

Which nerve is at risk of injury due to compression by plaster cast on the lower leg?

Common fibular

53

What is the name given to the sensory fibres of the femoral nerve which travels down the anterior and medial aspect of the leg?

Saphenous nerve

54

What two arteries does the popliteal nerve divide into?

Anterior tibial Posterior tibial

55

What does the anterior tibial artery become when it reaches the foot?

Dorsalis pedis

56

Where can the posterior tibial artery be palpated?

Posterior to the medial malleolus

57

Which arteries supply the hip joint?

Medial and lateral circumflex femoral branches of the deep femoral artery Retinacular arterties, branching from the medial circumflex femoral branch, supply the head of the femur

58

Which arteries are likely to be damaged in a trauma damaging the fibrous capsule of the hip?

Retinacular arteries

59

What is the name of the superficial vein that runs up the medial aspect of the leg?

Great saphenous vein

60

What is the name of the vein that drains emerges from the dorsal venous network and drains the lateral aspect of the leg?

Short saphenous vein

61

Which deep vein does the great saphenous vein drain into?

Femoral vein

62

Which deep vein does the short saphenous vein drain into?

Popliteal vein

63

Which structure is being indicated here?

Q image thumb

Deltoid ligament

64

Which vessel is being indicated here?

Q image thumb

Short saphenous vein

65

Which vessel is being indicated here?

Q image thumb

Long saphenous vein

66

Which vessel is being indicated here?

Q image thumb

Popliteal vein

67

Which muscle is the popliteal artery about to pass under here?

Q image thumb

Soleus

68

Which muscle is indicated in red here?

Q image thumb

Popliteus

69

Which muscle is the popliteal artery passing superficially to at this point?

Q image thumb

Popliteus

70

Which branch of the popliteal artery is being shown here and which course does it take from here?

Q image thumb

Anterior tibial artery

Travels anteriorly

71

Which branch of the popliteal artery is being shown here?

Q image thumb

Posterior tibial artery

72

Which opening is being indicated here?

Q image thumb

Lesser sciatic foramen

73

Which nerve passes through this foramen?

Q image thumb

Sciatic nerve

74

What foramen is this and what passes through it?

Q image thumb

Obturator foramen

Obturator nerves and vessels

75

Which part of the pelvis is being indicated here?

Q image thumb

Ischeal tuberosity

76

Which part of the pelvis is being indicated here?

Q image thumb

Pubic tubercle

77

Which muscle is being indicated here?

Q image thumb

Piriformis

78

Which muscle is being indicated here and what structure has it just passed though?

Q image thumb

Piriformis

Greater sciatic foramen

79

What do obturator externus and obturator internus do?

Q image thumb

They are hip rotators

 

A image thumb
80

WHere does obturator femoris arise and insert?

Arises from ischial tuberosity

Inserts on the neck of the femur posteriorly at the intertrochanteric crest

81

Which group of muscles arise from this area of the ischium and pubis?

Q image thumb

Hip adductors

82

Which muscle is being indicated here and what is it's function?

Q image thumb

Adductor magnus

Adducts the hip

83

What is this gap and what is it's function?

Q image thumb

Adductor hiatus

The named blood vessels of the leg pass through this gap anteriorly - posteriorly

84

Which muscle is this and what is it's function?

Q image thumb

Adductor brevis

Adducts the hip

85

Which muscle is this and what is it's function?

Q image thumb

Adductor longus

86

Which muscle is this?

Q image thumb

Pectineus

87

Which muscle is this?

Q image thumb

Gracilis

88

Which muscle is the most medial of all the thigh muscles?

Gracilis

89

What is the origin and insertion of gracilis?

Pubis

Proximal tibia

90

What muscle is this and what is its function?

Q image thumb

Gluteus minimus

Hip abductor

91

Which muscle is this? (Overlies gluteus minimus)

Q image thumb

Gluteus medius

92

What is the fascia lata?

A dense fibrous sheet that surrounds all the muscles of the thigh

93

What is the name of this thickening of the fascia lata?

Q image thumb

Iliotibial tract

94

Where does the tensor fascia lata arise and insert?

Iliac crest

Iliotibial tract

95

Which three muscles are hip abductors?

Gluteus medius

Gluteus minimus

Tensor fascia lata

96

Which muscle is this?

Q image thumb

Psoas major

97

Which muscle is this?

Q image thumb

Iliacus

98

Which hamstring muscle is being indicated here?

Q image thumb

Biceps femoris (runs to the lateral aspect of the leg)

99

What is this muscle and what is its function?

Q image thumb

Gluteus maximus

Hip extensor

100

What muscle makes the lateral border of the femoral triangle?

Sartorius

101

What muscle makes the medial border of the femoral triangle?

Adductor longus

102

What structure makes the superior border of the femoral triangle?

Inguinal ligament

103

Which vessel is this?

Q image thumb

Great/long saphenous vein

104

What is the name given to the femoral vein once it has passed beneath the inguinal ligament on its way to the IVC?

External iliac vein

105

What are these two branches of the deep femoral atery called?

Q image thumb

Lateral circumflex femoral artery

Medial circumflex femoral artery

106

Which structure is being indicated here?

Q image thumb

Femoral nerve (lateral to psoas major)

107

Which structure is being indicated here?

Q image thumb

Obturator nerve (medial to psoas)

108

Which muscles are supplied by the femoral nerve?

Iliacus

All four quadriceps

Pectineus

Sartorius

109

Which muscles does the superior gluteal nerve supply?

Gluteus medius

Gluteus minimus

Tensor fascia lata

110

What nerve is gluteus maximus supplied by?

Inferior gluteal nerve

111

Which structure is being indicated here?

Q image thumb

Sciatic nerve

112

Which structures are being indicated here?

Q image thumb

Cruciate ligaments

113

What do the cruciate ligaments do?

Prevent forwards and backwards movement of the femur on the tibia

114

What structure is being indicated here? (This is a posterior view of the knee)

Q image thumb

Posterior cruciate ligament

115

Which structures are being indicated here? (Right knee)

Q image thumb

Lateral/fibular collateral ligament

Medial/tibial collateral ligament

116

Which muscle allows extension of the knee?

Quadriceps

117

Which muscles produce flexion at the knee?

Hamstrings

Gracilis

Sartorius

118

Which muscle is being shown here? (Posterior view of knee)

Q image thumb

Popliteus muscle

119

Which muscle is being indicated here? (Posterior view of knee)

Q image thumb

Plantaris

120

Which muscle is being indicated here? (Posterior aspect of knee)

Q image thumb

Soleus

121

Which muscle is being indicated here?

Q image thumb

Gastrocnemius

122

Which structure is being indicated here and which two muscles join to form this?

Q image thumb

Calcaneal tendon

Gastrocnemius and soleus

123

What are the names of these lateral and medial arterial branches and which artery are they arising from? (Posterior view of knee)

Q image thumb

Superior genicular arteries

Branches of popliteal artery

124

Which structure is being indicated here in the popliteal fossa?

Q image thumb

Sciatic nerve

125

What is this branch of the sciatic nerve called?

Q image thumb

Tibial nerve

126

What is this branch of the sciatic nerve called?

Q image thumb

Common peroneal nerve

127

Which structure is being indicated here?

Q image thumb

Extensor retinaculum

128

Which structure is being indicated here?

Q image thumb

Flexor retinaculum

129

Which muscle is being indicated here and what is its function?

Q image thumb

Tibalis anteror

Dorsiflexion of the foot

Inversion of the foot

130

What is the origin and attachment of tibialis anterior?

Arises from the lateral surface of the tibia and the interosseous membrane

Travels through the extensor retinaculum, winds around the medial aspect of the foot and attaches to the base of the first metatarsal and cuneiform bone

131

Which three muscles' tendons join to form the calcaneal tendon?

Gastrocnemius

Plantaris

Soleus

132

Which muscle is this and what is its function?

Q image thumb

Tibialis posterior

Inverts the foot

133

Which three leg muscles act to evert the foot?

Peroneus longus

Peroneus brevis

Peroneus tertius

134

Where do peroneus longus and peroneus brevis arise?

Proximal end of fibula and distal end of fibula respectively

135

Which muscle is being indicated here?

Q image thumb

Peroneus tertius

136

Which structure is being indicated here?

Q image thumb

Short plantar ligament

137

Which structure is being indicated here?

Q image thumb

Plantar aponeurosis

138

Which three structures act to maintain the arch of the foot?

Plantar aponeurosis

Short plantar ligament

Long plantar ligament

139

Which structure is being indicated here?

Q image thumb

Deep transverse metatarsal ligament

140

Which muscle is being indicated here?

Q image thumb

Extensor hallicus longus

141

Which muscle is being indicated here?

Q image thumb

Extensor digitorum longus

142

Where do extensor hallicus brevis and extensor digitorum brevis arise?

The anterior part of the calcaneus

A image thumb
143

Which muscle is being indicated here?

Q image thumb

Extensor hallicus brevis

144

Which muscle is being indicated here?

Q image thumb

Extensor digitorum brevis

145

Which muscle is being indicated here?

Q image thumb

Flexor hallicus longus

 

146

Which muscle is being indicated here?

Q image thumb

Flexor digitorum longus

147

Which tendons are being indicated here?

Q image thumb

Left arrow: flexor hallicus longus

Right arrow: flexor digitorum  longus

148

How many interosseous muscles are in the foot?

7

2 for each of the three middle toes

1 for the small toe

149

What is the action of the interosseous muscles?

Flexion of the toes at the MP joints

150

Which muscle is being indicated here?

Q image thumb

Flexor digitorum brevis

151

Which muscle is being indicated here?

Q image thumb

Abductor hallicus