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Flashcards in Neuroanatomy Deck (72):
1

What is the correct term/name for nerve cell bodies in the CNS?

Nucleus

2

What is the correct term for a bundle of axons in the CNS?

Tract

3

What is the correct term/name for nerve cell bodies in the PNS?

Ganglion

4

What is the correct term for a bundle of axons in the PNS?

Nerve

5

What do spinal nerves supply?

Soma/body wall

6

Where is the only place spinal nerves are located?

Intervertebral foramina

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7

What is the name given to spinal nerves once they have exited the intervertebral foramina to connect with the body wall?

Rami

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8

What is the name given to the connecting structures attaching the spinal cord and spinal nerves of the same level?

Roots and rootlets

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9

Label these structures

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10

What are nerve plexuses?

Networks of intertwined anterior rami

11

Which axons are transported in the anterior horn of the spinal cord?

Motor axons

12

Which axons are transported in the posterior horn of the spinal cord?

Sensory axons

13

Which segment of the spinal cord has lateral horns and why?

T1 to L2 - transports sympathetic axons

14

Which nerve is the only sensory nerve not to synapse in the thalamus prior to entering the cortex?

Olfactory

15

How many layers of scalp are there?

5

16

What are the layers of the scalp?

S = Skin

C = Connective tissue

A = Aponeurosis

L = Loose connective tissue

P= Pericranium
 

17

What is the arterial supply of the scalp?

Scalp branches from the external carotid artery

18

What is the thinnest part of the skull?

Pterion

19

Which artery courses over the deep aspect of the pterion?

The middle meningeal artery

20

What are the three layers of meninges superficial to deep?

Dura mater

Arachnoid mater

Pia mater

21

What is the function of the dura mater?

Protection - this is the toughest meningeal layer

22

What is the function of the granulations on the arachnoid mater?

Reabsorbing CSF

23

What is the function of the pia mater?

Adherence to the brain and all nerves & vessels entering or leaving the brain

24

What is the dura mater adherent to?

The internal aspect of all bones of the skull

25

What is the tentorium cerebelli?

A tough layer of dura mater 'tenting' over the cerebellum

26

What is the falx cerebri?

A midline structure of dura mater separating the two cerebral hemispheres

27

Which ventricle is the central canal of the spinal cord continuous with?

4th ventricle

28

Which ventricle is in the midline?

3rd

29

Where is the 3rd ventricle located?

It is a midline structure within the diencephalon

30

What is the cerebral aqueduct?

It connects the 3rd and 4th ventricles in the midline

31

What two structures does the 4th ventricle lie between?

The cerebellum and pons

32

Which kind of haemorrhage would rupture of the middle meningeal artery be?

Extradural

33

Label these structures. 

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34

How is the cerebellum attached to the brainstem?

3 peduncles - superior, middle and inferior

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35

What are the three layers of the cerebellum?

Molecular layer (outer)

Purkinje cell layer (middle)

Granular layer (inner)

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36

Which cerebellar layer do afferent projections mainly reach?

Granular layer

37

What is the only cerebellar layer that efferent signals can travel from?

Perkinje layer

38

What clinical signs would a patient show if affected by a midline cerebellar lesion?

Disturbance of postural control: will fall over when standing or sitting despite limbs being in correct position

39

What clinical signs would a patient show if affected by a unilateral hemispheric lesion of the cerebellum?

Loss of limb coordination on the ipsilateral side

May have intention tremour

40

What clinical signs would a patient show if they suffered bilateral cerebellar dysfunction and what can commonly cause this?

Slowed, slurred speech (dysarthria), bilateral incoordination of the arms and a staggering, wide based gait (cerebellar ataxia)

Alcohol intake

41

What are the 5 main basal ganglia?

Caudate nucleus

Putamen

Globus pallidus

Subthalamic nucleus

Substantia nigra

42

What does the lenticular nucleus consist of?

The globus pallidus and putamen

43

What does the striatum consist of?

Caudate nucleus and putamen

44

What does the corpus striatum consist of?

Striatum (caudus nucleus and putamen) and globus pallidus

45

Label these structures.

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46

Label these structures.

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47

Where is the substantia nigra located?

Midbrain

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48

What are the functions of the basal ganglia?

To allow purposeful movement

To inhibit unwanted movement

Assist in posture and muscle tone

49

What is the clinical significance of the substantia nigra?

Degeneration of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra is the pathology of Parkinson's disease

   

50

Which side of the body do unilateral basal ganglia lesions affect?

Contralateral side

51

What clinical signs do basal ganglia lesions show?

Changes in muscle tone

Dyskinesias (abnormal, involuntary movements) including:

- tremor (sinusoidal movements),

  - chorea (rapid, asymmetrical movements usually affecting   distal limb musculature)

- myoclonus (muscle jerks).

52

Which white matter tracts in the brain connects cortical sites in the same hemisphere?

Association fibres

53

The Lumbar Enlargement of the Spinal Cord consists of which spinal nerves?

L1 - S4

54

Which spinal cord tract governs fine, precise movements?

Corticospinal tract

55

Which artery do the vertebral arteries arise from?

First part of the subclavian artery

56

What is this structure?

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The circle of Willis

57

Label these arteries.

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58

What arteries are branches of the internal carotid at the circle of Willis?

Anterior cerebral artery

Middle cerebral artery

59

What fissure does the middle cerebral artery travel in?

Lateral sulcus

60

Which artery supplies the basal ganglia?

Striate branches from the middle cerebral artery

61

What fissure does the anterior cerebral artery travel in?

Medial longitudinal fissure

62

Which artery connects the anterior circulation in the brain to the posterior?

Posterior communicating arteries

63

What areas of the brain does the anterior cerebral artery supply?

Medial and superior cerebral hemisphere

All areas shaded in blue

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64

What areas of the brain does the middle cerebral artery supply?

Lateral aspect of the brain

All areas in pink

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65

What areas of the brain does the posterior cerebral artery supply?

Inferior and posterior aspect of the cerebral hemispheres

Cerebellum

Brainstem

All areas in yellow

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66

At what level do the two vertebral arteries join to form the basilar artery?

Inferior aspect of the pons

67

At what level does the basilar artery split to form the posterior cerebral arteries?

Midbrain

68

What three artery groups supply the cerebellum?

Superior cerebellar

Anterior inferior cerebellar arteries

Posterior inferior cerebellar arteries

69

Where do the dural venous sinuses ultimately drain into?

Internal jugular vein

70

What structures pass through the cavernous sinus?

 Internal carotid artery

Cranial nerves III, IV, V (branches V1 and V2) and VI

71

Where is the superior sagittal sinus located?

Along the margin of the falx cerebri

72

Which sinus is indicated in red?

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Cavernous sinus