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Flashcards in Epilepsy Deck (63):
0

Seizure in which abnormal firing is limited to a specific area in 1 hemisphere

partial seizure

1

Seizure in which a large population of neurons in both hemispheres is involved immediately at the start of the seizure

generalized seizure

2

AED that has a weak effect on Na+ channels, increases GABA and decreases Ca2+ channel activity

Valproic Acid

3

AED that acts on Na+ channels as well as decreases glutamate release

Lamotrigine

4

AED that acts on Na+ channels as well as is a GABA agonist and a glutamate antagonist

Topiramate

5

Drug that acts on Na+ channels as well as Ca2+ channels

Zonisamide

6

6 AEDs that mainly act on Na+ channels

1. Carbamazepine
2. Oxcarbazepine
3. Eslicarbazepine
4. Phenytoin
5. Lacosamide
6. Rufinamide

7

Enzyme that synthesizes GABA from glutamate

glutamate decarboxylase

8

Inotropic GABA receptor that is a Cl- channel that is inhibitory of synaptic transmission

GABA-A

9

Metabotropic GABA receptor that inhibits neurotransmitter release

GABA-B

10

AED that is a product of rational drug design and decreases GABA reuptake through GABA transporters into neurons and glial cells

Tiagabine

11

AED that is an irreversible inhibitor of GABA transaminase, which is responsible for GABA metabolism

Vigabatrin

12

Black box warning on vigabatrin

irreversible concentric focal field loss

13

AED that also has sedative properties that binds to GABA-A receptor and increases its response to GABA

Phenobarbital

14

Class of AEDs that enhance the inhibitory action of GABA

Benzodiazepines

15

AED that is a Ca2+ channel inhibitor and is mainly used in absence seizures

Ethosuximide

16

2 AEDs that have a high affinity for the alpha2-delta binding site on voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and decrease the Ca2+-dependant release of neurotransmitters, including glutamate and NE

Gabapebtin and pregabalin

17

AED that binds with high affinity to synaptic vesicle protein (SV2A)

Levetiracetam

18

AED that is a K+ channel opener or stabilizer, stabilizing the resting membrane potential

Ezogabine

19

AED that is a non-competitive AMPA receptor antagonist

Perampanel

20

The hormonal influence on seizures in women who are menstrating

catamenial influence

21

Sudden, uncontrollable electrical discharges in normal brain activity

seizure

22

Recurrent, unprovoked seizures

Epilepsy

23

The most prevalent form of epilepsy

complex partial seizures

24

Seizure that involves loss of consciousness and tonic-clonic movements and often involves tongue bitting or incontinence

Grand mal seizure

25

Seizure that involves a brief episode (2-15 sec.) of staring, unable to respond

Absence seizure

26

Seizure that involves brief, bilateral jerk of neck, shoulders and legs

myoclonic seizure

27

Seizure that involves brief, bilateral stiffening of the body

tonic seizure

28

Seizure that involves sudden loss of muscle tone and people tend to drop things

atonic seizure

29

A seizure lasting for >30 min or with no recovery

status epilepticus

30

Treatment options for status epilepticus

IV benzodiazepines, phenytoin or phenobarbital

31

AED that has saturable metabolism, meaning a small increase in dose may cause a greater than expected increase in drug conc.

Phenytoin

32

Toxicities in phenytoin

nystagmus, ataxia, gingival hyperpasia, osteomalacia

33

AED in which the liver has auto-induction to and becomes more efficient at clearing the drug over time

Carbamazepine

34

Toxicities with carbamazepine

dizziness, diplopia, leukopenia, osteomalacia

35

Toxicities with oxcarbazepine

dizziness, diplopia, ataxia, hyponatremia

36

Toxicities in lacosamide

diplopia, HA, dizziness, nausea

37

AED that is metabolized by CYP3A4 but still has no clinically significant drug interactions

lacosamide

38

Uses of carbamazepine outside of epilepsy

bipolar disorder, pain

39

Use of lamotrigine outside of epilepsy

bipolar disorder

40

Toxicities with lamotrigine

sedation, diplopia, ataxia, nausea, rash

41

AED in which estrogen increases its clearance

lamotrigine

42

Toxicities in topiramate

difficulty concentrating, kidney stones, weight loss

43

Uses of topiramate outside of epilepsy

migraine prophylaxis, weight loss

44

AED that is a sulfonamide

Zonisamide

45

Toxicities with zonisamide

somnolence, dizziness, kidney stones, weight loss

46

Toxicities with phenobarbital

sedation, paradoxical hyperactivity, osteomalacia

47

Toxicities with ethosuximide

sedation, GI

48

Toxicities with valproic acid

sedation, N/V, weight gain, hair loss, tremor, thrombocytopenia (check for bruising)

49

Uses of valproic acid outside of epilepsy

migraine prophylaxis, bipolar disorder

50

AED that has saturable absorption

Gabapentin

51

Toxicities with gabapentin

fatigue, dizziness, ataxia

52

Uses of gabapentin outside of epilepsy

post-herpetic neuralgia, diabetic peripheral neuropathy, restless leg syndrome

53

Toxicities with pregabalin

dizziness, ataxia, weight gain

54

Uses of pregabalin outside of epilepsy

post-herpetic neuralgia, diabetic peripheral neuropathy, firomyalgia, anxiety (off-label)

55

Toxicities with levetiracetam

somnolence, dizziness, behavioral changes

56

Toxicities in ezogabine

dizziness, fatigue, diplopia, ataxia, urinary retention

57

Black box warning for ezogabine

bluish discoloration of skin and ocular toxicity

58

Toxicities with perampanel

dizziness, somnolence, irritability, ataxia, weight gain

59

Black box warning for perampanel

suicidality and homocidality

60

4 AEDs that are 1st generation

1. Phenobarbital
2. Phenytoin
3. Carbamazepine
4. Valproic acid

61

1st generation AEDs that are enzyme inducers

phenobarbital
phenytoin
carbamazepine

62

1st generation AED that is an enzyme inhibitor

vaproic acid