Epithelia, Skin & Exocrine Glands Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Epithelia, Skin & Exocrine Glands Deck (67):
1

What are two proteins found in the skin?

Keratin
Melanin

2

What is melanin?

A dark coloured light sensitive pigment protecting against excessive amounts of UV radiation.

3

What endocrine function does the skin carry out?

Vitamin D

4

What causes psoriasis? What does psoriasis result in? Particularly in which layers of the epidermis?

Increased production of skin cells. Red, flaky patches of skin. Stratum corneum

5

Which individuals are more at risk of vitamin D deficiency?

Dark skinned individuals

6

Vitamin D is produced in which reaction in the skin?

Reaction of 7-dehydrocholesterolwith UVb radiation

7

What can vitamin D deficiency result in?

Rickets

8

What individuals are at a higher risk of skin cancer? What is the reason for this?

Caucasians - in particular albinos

They lack skin pigmentation/melanin to protect from UV radiation

9

What are two types of membranes lining parts of the body?

Mucous
Serous

10

What do mucous membranes line?

Lines certain internal tubes which open to the exterior

11

Give an example of parts of the body that are lined by mucous membranes?

Alimentary tract
Respiratory tract
Urinary tract

12

What makes the mucous membrane mucousal?

It bares mucus-secreting cells to varying degrees

13

What 2 layers does a mucous membrane generally consist of?

Epithelium lining the tube
Lamina propria (connective tissue)

14

What 3rd layer of the mucous membrane exists in the alimentary tract?

Smooth muscle cells ---> muscularis mucosae

15

What do serous membranes line?

Closed body cavities

16

What is the structure of a serous membrane?

Thin

2 parts with lubricating fluid in between
Inside layer = visceral serosa
Outside layer = parietal serosa

17

What are the layers of a serous membrane?

1) A simple squamous epithelium mesothelium
2) A thin layer of connective tissue

18

What part of the serous membrane secretes the watery lubricating fluid?

The simple squamous epithelium (mesothelium)

19

Give 3 examples of serous membranes and the organs they each envelop.

The peritoneum - enveloping abdominal organs
The pleural sacs - enveloping the lungs
The pericardial sac - enveloping the heart

20

All epithelial tissue lies on top of ...

A basement membrane and underlying connective tissue

21

What is the difference between simple and stratified epithelium?

Simple = one cell layer thick
Stratified = more than 1 cell layer thick

22

What are 4 types of simple epithelium?

Squamous
Cuboidal
Columnar
Pseudostratified

23

What are 4 types of stratified epithelium?

Squamous
Cuboidal
Columnar
Transitional

24

What does a basement membrane consist of? What are its properties?

A basal lamina of type 4 collagen
Reticular fibres (type 3 collagen)

A thin, flexible and strong layer for epithelia to adhere to

25

What is endothelium?

Simple squamous epithelium that lines all blood vessels

26

What is a mesothelium?

The epithelial lining closed body cavities (found in serous membranes) e.g. The pericardial sac, pleural sac and peritoneum

27

Give three examples of where simple squamous epithelium is found?

Lining blood vessels (endothelium)
Lining closed cavities (mesothelium)
Pulmonary alveoli
Bowman's capsule/loop of Henle

28

Give two functions of simple squamous epithelium?

Lubrication
Gas exchange

29

What appearance do simple cuboidal epithelial cells take?

A single layer of uniform cuboidal cells

30

Give 3 locations of simple cuboidal epithelia in the body?

Lining pancreatic ducts
Lining thyroid gland follicles
Lining the collecting ducts of the kidney
Lining the surface of the ovary

31

Give 2 functions of simple cuboidal epithelial cells?

Absorption
Hormone synthesis/storage

32

What appearance do simple columnar epithelia take?

Taller than they are wide, column shaped - single layer

33

Where is simple columnar epithelium found?

In virtually all the GI tract (from the oesophagus onwards)
-stomach -small intestine -colon

Lining the fallopian tube

34

What are the functions of simple columnar epithelium?

Absorption
Secretion
Lubrication

35

What appearance does pseudostratified epithelium take?

Every cell attached to basement membrane but nuclei lie at different heights and some cells don't reach the lumen

36

Where can pseudostratified epithelium be found in the body?

Lining the nasal cavity
Lining the trachea
Lining the bronchi

37

Give functions of pseudostratified epithelium.

Absorption
Secretion of mucus
Particle trapping and removing

38

In which sorts of locations is (non keratinised) stratified squamous epithelium found? Give specific examples

Moist areas, subject to abrasion

Lining the vagina
Lining the oesophagus
Lining the oral cavity
Surface of the cornea

39

Where is keratinised stratified squamous epithelium found?

Epidermis - lining of skin

40

What is the main cell of the epidermis? What do they secrete?

Keratinocytes

Keratin

41

What do keratinocytes differentiate into at the outermost layers of the epidermis?

Corneocytes, become highly keratinised and lose nucleus

42

What are the 4 layers of the skin, from the outside inwards?

Horny Layer (Stratum Corneum)
Granular Layer
Prickle cell layer
Basal layer

43

In which layer of the skin are keratinocytes produced? By which process are they produced? What happens to these cells once they are produced?

Basal layer
By mitosis
Pass up through the layers

44

In which layer of the epidermis do keratinocytes start differentiating into corneocytes? What happens to them?

Granular layer
Lose their plasma membrane, nucleus - become highly keratinised

45

What are the 'granules' of the granular layer of the epidermis?

Keratohyalin granules

46

What is contained within keratohyalin granules?

Keratin
Enzymes to break down the phospholipid bilayer
Fibrous proteins (e.g. Fillagrin and involucrin)

47

What are the functions of fillagrin and involucrin respectively?

Fillagrin - aggregates keratins
Involucrin - helps forms corneocyte envelope

48

What cells does the horny layer (stratum corneum) consist of?

Layers of flattened corneocytes

49

What is the rough transit time of a keratinocyte from the basal layer to the horny layer?

28-40 days

50

Name two cells of the epidermis (excluding keratinocytes and corneocytes)

Melanocytes
Langerhans cells

51

What is the function of melanocytes? At which layer of the epidermis do they exist?

Produce melanin

Basal layer

52

A dark skinned individual has more melanin, do they have more melanocytes?

No they have the same number

53

In which layer of the epidermis do Langerhans cells exist?

The prickle cell layer

54

What appearance does transitional epithelium take? Where is it exclusively found?

Surface cells vary in shape from columnar to cuboidal to flattened

Found only in urinary tract

55

Define gland

An epithelial cell or collection of cells specialised for secretion

56

Are exocrine and endocrine gland with or without ducts?

Exocrine = with ducts
Endocrine = ductless

57

Give an example of a unicellular exocrine gland

Goblet cell

58

On which protein does Cystic fibrosis have its effect? What effect does this have in the respiratory tract?

CFTR - misfolded/not present in apical membrane of epithelial cells

Chloride ions cannot be pumped out of the cell, water can't follow to hydrate secreted mucus ---> mucus is too viscous ---> pulmonary infection

59

What effect can cystic fibrosis have in the gut?

Can result in meconiumileus in new borns (cant pass 1st faeces)
In adults, constipation

60

Glands can be categorised into which 2 categories based on their physical appearance/structure?

Acinar (bunch of grapes ---> 1 large duct)
Tubular (secretory cells line a tubule)

61

What are 3 methods of secretion at glands?

Merocrine
Apocrine
Holocrine

62

What is merocrine secretion?

Standard exocytosis - majority of glands

63

What is apocrine secretion? Give an example.

Secreted droplets are covered by plasmalemma

E.g. Breast milk

64

What is holocrine secretion? Give an example

Whole cell breaks down and becomes secretory product

Sebaceous glands of the skin

65

What test can be done to confirm a diagnosis of cystic fibrosis?

Salty sweat test

No CFTR - so chloride ions can't be reabsorbed, often in high levels in sweat

66

What are the 3 major salivary glands? What do each of the glands largely secrete?

Parotid (enzymes)
Submandibular (mucus)
Sublingual (mucus)

67

What effects does cystic fibrosis have outside the respiratory tract and gut?

Infertility - no vas deferens

Blocking of ducts in the pancreas ---> inflammation (pancreatitis)