Flashcards in Ethics - May 27 Deck (69):
The inner sense of right and wrong that enables individuals to discern moral choices freely.
List 4 basic moral principles that are considered universal.
1) Do good, avoid evil
2) Do unto others....
3) Then end does not justify the means
4) Follow what nature intends
What is a Christian approach to deciding whether to obey or disobey civil laws?
To know if it is unjust or is civil disobedience.
What is the Sermon on the Mount?
A collection of many of Jesus' teachings about how to live and relate to other people in Matthew's Gospel (chapter 5-7).
What are the 6 types of sin?
What is mortal sin?
Cutting off from God, self, and others that their whole life direction is towards sin.
What is venial sin?
Choosing to hurt relationship with God, self, and others, but not to cut it off completely.
What is personal sin?
Knowingly, willingly, doing something that hurts relationship with God, self, neighbour, or nature.
What is social sin?
What a whole group or society participates in a process or a system that harms human relationships. Everyone shares, in some degree, the responsibility for the damage caused.
What is omission sin?
Neglecting to do something required, such as failing o speak up when someone else is wrongly accused of something.
What is commission sin?
Doing an act of wrong, such as stealing.
What is guilt?
Signals us that we are uncomfortable with our own behaviour. (constructive)
What is shame?
A message that we are not good as a person. (always destructive)
Describe the three distortions of conscience.
-A wrongly formed conscience (wrong info)
-A lax conscience (immune to guilt)
-A legalistic conscience (caught up in obeying perfectly, they cannot see real needs of a situation)
What is original sin?
Leaves a legacy of sin in the world, a legacy of broken relationships.
What is actual sin?
What we ourselves do to keep sin going in the world.
What is the Catholic church's position on whether to always follow one's conscience?
You should always follow your conscience, but also make sincere efforts to form conscience rightly and honestly.
List the elements of the LISTEN method of moral decision making.
-Look for the facts. (figure out what the real situation is...who, what, when, where, why, how)
-Imagine possibilities. (consider consequences, creative approaches, options)
-Seek insight beyond your own. (Look for help: family, religion, wise people, moral principles)
-Tune inward. (examine own feelings, insight from experience, motives, and values)
-Expect God's help. (feel God's presence in your life, especially in your honest attempts to see truth)
-Name your decision. (calls for some resolution of the dilemma and a consciousness of where the matter now stands)
When does guilt occur?
When we are uncomfortable with our own behaviour.
What is grace?
God's loving presence with us.
What is the Communion of Saints?
The church; the union of all good and faithful persons throughout history, both living and dead.
What is faith?
Complete trust or confidence in someone or something: Strong belief in God or in a religion.
What are the Beatitudes?
Descriptions of people who are living the Reign of God in their own life-the poor, the sorrowing, the hungry, the meek, the persecuted.
What is rugged individualism?
A North American value: "I can go it alone...I don't need help"
What are the 6 sources of support?
1) Our relationship with God, the source of our life
2) Our community
3) Basic moral principles
4) Civil laws
5) The teachings of Jesus and the Scriptures
6) The teachings of the church
What is sin?
Sin is ultimately a violation of relationships.
What is morality?
The set of values and principles that guide someone's choices about what kind of person he or she is becoming. It guides our behaviour.
What do we base our morality on as a child?
We base it on obeying our parents in fear of punishment and to please them.
What do we base our morality on as adolescents?
The media and peers.
What do we base our morality on as adults?
Values that are within the person.
What does it mean to be "morally mature"?
To learn from our mistakes and then go on living as deeper, wiser people.
How does self-esteem affect our morality/decision making?
If we feel at peace with who we are and not tied up with anxieties about how we are coming across to others, we will be freer to make decisions based on our own values and the needs of a situation, not on our fears and insecurities.
A regular pattern of acts.
A good habit; an inner readiness to accomplish moral good.
A bad habit; an inner readiness to accomplish moral evil.
What does it mean to be "created in God's image"?
As a reflection of God; have freedom, power and responsibility.
What did Adam and Eve do?
Reject their humanness.
What is unconditional love?
Love without any conditions. To see beyond our sinfulness to our essential goodness.
How is love communicated?
To people by other people.
How should we respond to love?
The natural response is to become a lover.
What are the Questionable Values in North American Society?
-Competitiveness and a "me first" attitude
-The isms: racism, sexism, ageism
-A "quick fix" mentality
What is God's idea of freedom?
To choose; their options and decide among them.
What is God's idea of power?
To act on their freely chosen decisions
What is God's idea of responsibility?
Accountability for their choices/actions.
When is power a positive thing?
When it has an effect on themselves and the world around them: POSITIVELY.
Why are human beings relational?
We are connected to others; we cannot grow spiritually or morally without others.
What is the Principle of Proportionality?
If the end to be achieved is clearly so good that it outweighs the harm done by the bad means.
What is Civil Disobedience?
Acts performed nonviolently and with an acceptance of the consequences of jails, fines, or sometimes even death.
What is the church's stance on Civil Disobedience?
We are not only allowed to break the law, but we may be obligated to do so.
What is reconciliation person to person?
Facing ourselves honestly then taking the necessary step to bring our wounded or damaged relationships back together.
What is reconciliation as a sacrament?
When we "come back home" to God, ourselves, and others in the community.
What is Eucharist?
The source and the fruit of the faith-life of the community that is the church.
What does it mean to be interdependent?
Having support from family, friends and institutions.
Nice vs Christian Morality?
Niceness means going along with others, not upsetting anyone. Christian Morality is operating from love.
Define wise judgement.
The ability to make decisions according to a well formed conscience and the willingness to carry out those decisions.
Striving to ensure the well-being of others as well as ourselves.
What is individual justice?
Concern with obligations between individuals. (one to one)
What is social justice?
Obligations (the individuals and subgroups within the society have) toward their community or the society as a whole.
What is distributive justice?
Obligations (the society has towards all members, role of governments, corporations, communities, and individuals) in the just distribution of society's resources.
Enables us to tackle the fear and dread that stand in the way of our doing good,
Balancing of all parts of the self to create a dynamic and harmonious order.
The ability to seek and uphold the truth.
How are we more honest with ourselves?
We are skilled at listening to what is going on inside us; what we are really thinking and feeling.
Define respect for persons.
To recognize and honour the essential goodness of each person.
The ability to be conscious of the suffering of others, to be moved by their distress, and to desire to alleviate their suffering.
Define respect for creation.
The ability to see all created beings as good in themselves and as having basic needs that must be met.
How do we have respect for others?
-understand how creation works
-appreciate the creation
-take care of the creation
Define reverence for human life.
Respect for the gift of life.