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Flashcards in Industrial Revolution Deck (60):
0

steel

Bessemer

1

Cyclopaedia

Abraham Rees

2

boring drill

John Wilkinson

3

concrete

-Smeaton
-the idea was lost and he rediscovered it

4

puddling

-Henry Cort
-made much purer form of iron called wrought iron

5

Where was the first mill built?

Cromford on a stream which flows into the River Derwent

6

How is coke made?

From coal.

7

mule

Samuel Crompton
-spinning Jenny + Water frame

8

power loom

Edmund Cartwright
-machine that make cloth from threads

9

Spinning Jenny

-James Hargreaves
-worked several spindles and produced more thread
-hand operated

10

Water frame

Richard Arkwright
-1 person did the work of 3000 hand spinners

11

Flying shuttle

John Kay
-sped up handloom weaving

12

tenter or tenterhooks

a structure that held fabrics for drying or other treatment in the production of woollen cloth.

14

Factory Act

1833
-limited children under 18 to work 8 hours a day, 6 days a week.
-children under 9 could to work in textile factories.
-children 9 and under could not work more than 48 hours/week
-teenagers between 13-18 could not work more than 69 hours/week

14

Ten Hours Act

1847
-reduced work hours to 10 hours a day.

15

Mines Act

1842
-women and children under 10 can't work in underground coal mines.

16

Jethro Tull

seed drill and horse-drawn hoe

17

cotton gin

Eli Whitney
-a machine for separating cotton from its seeds.

18

steam engine

James Watt
-improved it*

19

rocket

George Stephenson
-first steam powered locomotive

20

Samuel Slater

the first to smuggle a machine into the US

21

blunderbuss

Eli Whitney
-gun

22

interchangeable gun parts

Eli Whitney

23

firedamp

an explosive mixture

24

How do miners check for fire damps?

They put a canary in and if it survives, it's safe.

25

safety lamp

Sir Humphrey Davy

26

gleaning

-gather (leftovers) after a harvest

27

Enclosures Movement

-villages started to fence in their fields.
-no gleaning after enclosures
-farmers could practice new ideas

28

Robert Bakewell

-breeder selectively of cattle and sheep

29

British Chartists

-unionists
-fights for better working conditions

30

hurriers

-boys who pushed the coal cart

31

luddites

machine breakers

32

John McAdam

-roads
-turnpike trust

33

turnpike trust

private road companies that charged tolls on roads.

34

trappers

children who open/shut trap doors in mines

35

indulgences

-pardons for sins

36

Who was the prime minister at the time of the Industrial Revolution?

Robert Peel

37

Who created the first steam engine that pumps water from the mines?

Thomas Newcomen

38

What did Alfred Nobel do?

Created the dynamite and felt guilty for how it was being used, so he presents the Nobel Peace Prize.

39

Who created the first friendly factory? (school, day care, good pay, etc)

Robert Owen

40

Who brought turnip to Britain?

Charles Townshend

41

Why was turnip a good crop to grow?

-it could grow all year
-provided nitrogen to the soil

42

Which reformer created the Acts?

Lord Shaftesbury

43

Who created the 4 crop rotation (Norfolk rotation system)?

Charles Townshend

44

Who are Commissioners?

Men who made checked the farms to make it legally enclosed.

45

The weight of coal carried up ladders by women.

170 lbs.

46

dreadnaughts

an English warship that protected British merchant ships called caravelles.

48

barge

horse-drawn boat that carried good and people

49

caravelles

British merchant ships

50

huguenots

protestants

51

primogeniture

passed to eldest (son)

52

teasel

used to give cloths the correct finish

53

corvee

forced labour demanded instead of taxes (on roads)

54

What is laissez-faire?

The idea of economic individualism and free trade. (Adam Smith)

55

Who builds the first factory?

Richard Arkwright

56

Why were canals instructed?

To cut transportation cost for bulky items such as coal or metal ores by 75%.

57

Which 4 things were used in the Norfolk rotation system?

wheat, turnips, barley, and clover

58

What is the Royal Society?

Groups of philosophers who gave out prize money for the most useful and successful inventions.

59

What is the Lunar Society?

Great thinkers of the Industrial Revolution who met to discuss scientific questions and how science could be applied to manufacturing, mining, transport education and medicine.

60

Abraham Darby

Succeeded in smelting iron by using coke instead of charcoal.