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Flashcards in Psych - Module 1 Deck (40):
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Behaviorism

Focuses on how we learned observable responses.

1

Cognitive

Focuses on how we encode, process, store, and retrieve information.

2

Functionalism

Theory that emphasizes the functions of the mind and how consciousness helped people adapt to their environment.

3

Applied Research

Scientific study that aims to solve practical problems.

4

Gestalt

Psychological system that focuses on how people organize their perceptions and combined sensory elements to produce new patterns.

5

Humanistic

A system focusing on the study of conscious experience, freed will, and capacity for personal growth.

6

Positive Psychology

Focuses on the study of optimal human functioning and the factors that allow individuals and communities to thrive.

7

Psychoanalysis

Psychodynamic Perspective; it focuses on how behaviour springs from unconscious drives and conflicts.

8

Basic Research

Pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base.

9

Perspective

A means of classifying a collection of ideas that grows into a movement.

10

Structuralism

Theory that emphasizes analyzing components of conscious thought to determine its structure.

11

Behavior Genetics

Focused on how much our heredity/genes and our environment influence individual differences.

12

Psychology

The scientific study if the mind and behavior.

13

What is the Psychodynamic Perspective?

"Focusing on the inner person." Unconscious drives, memories and conflicts determine personality and behavior.

14

Who is Sigmund Freud?

Developed the theory of psychoanalysis.

15

What are the 5 Psychological Perspectives?

Cognitive
Evolutionary/Biological
Sociocultural
Behavioral
Humanistic
Psychodynamic

17

Who is Erik Erikson?

Created the Stages of Psychosocial Development with each stage presenting a crisis or conflict that the individual must resolve.

18

Who is Jean Piaget?

Studied cognitive perspective.

19

What is assimilation?

The process in which people understand an experience based on their currents state of cognitive developments and ways of thinking.

20

What is accommodation?

Changes in existing ways of thinking in response to encounter with new stimuli or events.

21

Who is Lev Vygotsky?

Russian Psychologist who studied sociocultural theory.

22

What is the sociocultural theory?

A full understanding of development is impossible without taking into account the culture/setting/situation in which children develop. (influenced by others)

23

What is Behavioral Perspective?

"Considering the outer person." All behaviour is learned as a response to external stimuli.

24

Who are John B. Watson and B.F Skinner?

Founders of behaviourism and studied classical and operant conditioning.

25

What is classical conditioning?

Learning to respond in a particular way to a neutral stimulus. (going to class when hearing the bell)

26

What is operant conditioning?

When a stimulus (reward) is provided that increases the probability that a preceding behaviour will be repeated. Or a punishment is provided, decreasing it.

27

What is Albert Bandura's theory?

The social-cognitive learning theory; seeing the behaviour of a model being rewarded, and we are likely to imitate the behaviour.

28

Carl Rogers

Suggested that all people have a need for unconditional positive regard that results from an underlying wish to be loved and respected.

29

Who is Abraham Maslow?

Created the Hierarchy of Needs. Self-actualization is a primary goal in life.

30

What are the stages of the Hierarchy of Needs?

Physiological Needs
Safety Needs
Belongingness and Love Needs
Esteem Needs
Self-Actualization

31

What is Sociocultural Perspective?

Each person is significantly affected by interactions among a number of overlapping ecosystems.

32

Who is Urie Bronfenbrenner?

Studied sociocultural perspective using a three-system model of microsystem, ecosystem, and macrosystem.

33

What is the Evolutionary Perspective?

A theory that stresses that behaviour is strongly influenced by biology, and evolution.

34

Who is Wilhelm Wundt?

-Father of psych
-founder of modern psych
-first psych lab

35

What is free association?

A method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says what's on their mind.

36

Define unconscious

A region of the mind full of unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories.

37

Define id

Aggressive and sexual drives operating from the pleasure principle.

38

Define super ego.

Internalized ideals and standards. What we should do, not what we'd like to do.

39

Define ego

Mediator that makes decision. Operating from the reality principle satisfying the id and superego.

40

Who is William James?

-first psych text
-first american psychologist