European History SG - Ch. 10 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in European History SG - Ch. 10 Deck (46):
1

society

growth of cities, increases trade and commerce (b/c crusades and growth of cities), growth of middle class

2

religion

RCC and papacy at the height of their power

3

education

rise of universities, scholasticism, new sources of knowledge from Arabic and Greco-Roman sources

4

art

great cathedral

5

wars

the crusades

6

Why were moneychangers so important during this time?

increased trade so increased money (standard of value for all goods), feudal lords = minted their own coins so there were many different types of currency), converted currency, checked for counterfeits, acted as banks, would keep money in safekeeping for merchants, loans, letters of credit = checks)

7

What is usury? Why did the church condemn it? What changed their attitude?

the practice of charging interest for the use of lent money, would be making money off a brother who needed money, borrowed money = business investment, equal chance of punishment for investor so could make a profit on a loan

8

Describe the importance of the invention of wind and water mills.

reduced time or labor to crush grain, etic. women were relieved to do other activities (gardens, spinning yarn, animals)

9

What were the causes of the rise in population between the mid-eleventh and fourteenth centuries?

1. warmer climates increased food supply so that they could grow more good
2. political stability = reduction of violence
3. health care increase - apothecaries, barber-surgeons, hospitals

10

What factors made possible the growth of towns?

-rise of population
-increased food supply meant not everyone had to be farmer
-greater protection = merchants can travel safely to and from towns (gathered around trade routes/harbors)

11

common characteristics of medieval towns

-mint, marketplace, court, walls, trade (artisans, shopkeepers, merchants)

12

Name largest cities and number of people.

Paris - 200,000, Cordoba - 500,000, Constantinople - 300,000

13

things traders would bring to Europe from the East

spices, sugar, silks, carpets, slaves, clothing, wine

14

Commercial Revolution and mercantile capitalism

1) volume of trade increased and new complexity of business procedures, new capitalist spirit - imperative to make a profit, have wealth
2) merchants bringing back materials to sell

15

What does the word "sacrament" mean?

certain rituals defined by the church in which God bestows benefits on the believer through grace

16

7 RCC sacraments

1. baptism (mostly infant)- takes care of original sin, determines salvation, puts them on road to purgatory/heaven
2. confirmation - older person declaring faith after infant baptism (many people did not do this because bishops were busy and not a priority), understanding
3. Eucharist- communion, 1x a year @ easter
4. penance- making up for sin (pilgrimage, saying Lord's prayer a certain amount of times)
5. marriage (done in church) or 6. holy orders/ priestly ordination- no marriage, devoted for life
7. anointment of the dying (last rites)

17

Describe three factors that led to a revival of learning in the 12th century

1. political and economic advances improved climates for intellectual pursuit
2. new knowledge from East - Greek/Roman/Arabic
3. gov't expanded so need for more education besides theology due to growth of towns

18

Had you lived before the development of universities and wanted to get an education, what were your options?

monasteries and cathedral schools mostly to become clergy, municipal schools run by towns

19

What explanation did medieval scientists give for why men go bald and have larger shoulders and brains than women?

men: hot and dry so hair burned out and they went bald, larger shoulders and brains because heat made things expand
women: cold and wet

20

What subject was considered the "queen of the sciences"? What does this term mean?

theology- the study of God who made all knowledge possible (foundation for all other subjects)

21

What was the best place to study theology in the 12th century?

Notre Dame in Paris

22

What method did the scholastics use to determine truth?

scholasticism- method of thinking, reasoning, and writing - question raised and rational answers given after discussing both sides of a subject from authorities such as Aristotle and the Bible, new knowledge from East so analyzed this

23

What significant event occurred around 1200?

founding of first universities

24

What could cause a professor at the University of Bologna to be fined?

-not having an audience of at least 5
-must begin with the bell and end one min. after next bell
-must cover a certain amount of material systematically throughout the year

25

What is vernacular literature?

local dialect that authors wrote in instead of latin which was the language used universities (French/German)

26

Who were the troubadours?

poets who wrote and sang lyric verses celebrating love, desire, and beauty

27

What is the origin of the word "cathedral"?

-church of a bishop / admin. headquarters
-Greek (kathedra) - "seat" - bishop/s throne, symbol of office

28

differences between Romanesque and Gothic architecture

Romanesque: rectangular buildings (as wide as it is tall), made of stone, rounded arches
Gothic: flying buttresses (stone supports), pointed arches and stone ribs filled with plaster that supported the majority of the weight of the ceiling so that walls could be constructed of more stain glass windows

29

significant event of 1163

began building Notre Dame

30

For what were cathedrals used?

baptisms, masses, funerals, saint's day services, guild meetings (organization of people of same trade - blacksmiths)

31

What is polyphony?

adding voices in different pitches to chanting by clergy in the form of liturgical music called plain song/Gregorian chanting

32

Anselm

theologian/philosopher, archbishop of canterbury

33

What is the name of Anselm's famous argument for the existence of God?

ontological argument for God's existence

34

Anselm's view of atonement

satisfaction theory of atonement - God having been dishonored by sin, must receive satisfaction. JC - both man and God provides that satisfaction

35

What did Anselm say about the relationship between belief and understanding?

do not understand in order to believe, believe in order to understand

36

Peter Abelard

brilliant French scholar and teacher

37

name of famous book and subject material (PA)

Sic at Non: "Yes and No" - different positions of church leaders (free will)

38

What did Peter Abelard say about the value of doubt?

doubting = questioning = truth

39

Abelard's view of atonement

moral influence theory of atonement, cross = ultimate display of God's love and in response to the love of God thus displayed we, in turn, love God and live for God rather than continuing in sin

40

Thomas Aquinas

Dominican friar, professor at university of Paris

41

famous book (TA)

Summa Theologica ("5 Ways": Proofs for God's existence), answers to everything/all sorts of questions

42

What possibilities does human reason offer? What limitations are there to reason? What is the relationship between reason and faith?

human reason can only go so far - make conjectures about the natural world until it hits a wall. Reason becomes speculation without faith. Reason and faith and divine reason and human reason must go together to fully understand the world around us. That is how God made our minds to work because He is omniscient.

43

What important social and economic changes took place in the High Middle Ages?

growth of cities, increased trade (moneychangers)

44

How did sacraments shape life in the High Middle Ages?

7 sacraments...

45

How did universities serve the needs of medieval society?

80 universities 1200-1500, education more accessible, legal, medical, and theological training needed because of the growth of cities

46

How did art and architecture express medieval values?

Christianity - art shows symbolism (pictures connecting O and N T's in stained glass windows), shape of church in cross form, centrality of religion = cathedrals center of towns (as Christ should be center of life)
importance of local community- cathedrals = symbol of civic pride, wealth, and power (competition between towns)
hierarchical structure of Roman catholicism: front altar closed off to commoners