Flashcards in European History SG - Ch. 10 Deck (46):
growth of cities, increases trade and commerce (b/c crusades and growth of cities), growth of middle class
RCC and papacy at the height of their power
rise of universities, scholasticism, new sources of knowledge from Arabic and Greco-Roman sources
Why were moneychangers so important during this time?
increased trade so increased money (standard of value for all goods), feudal lords = minted their own coins so there were many different types of currency), converted currency, checked for counterfeits, acted as banks, would keep money in safekeeping for merchants, loans, letters of credit = checks)
What is usury? Why did the church condemn it? What changed their attitude?
the practice of charging interest for the use of lent money, would be making money off a brother who needed money, borrowed money = business investment, equal chance of punishment for investor so could make a profit on a loan
Describe the importance of the invention of wind and water mills.
reduced time or labor to crush grain, etic. women were relieved to do other activities (gardens, spinning yarn, animals)
What were the causes of the rise in population between the mid-eleventh and fourteenth centuries?
1. warmer climates increased food supply so that they could grow more good
2. political stability = reduction of violence
3. health care increase - apothecaries, barber-surgeons, hospitals
What factors made possible the growth of towns?
-rise of population
-increased food supply meant not everyone had to be farmer
-greater protection = merchants can travel safely to and from towns (gathered around trade routes/harbors)
common characteristics of medieval towns
-mint, marketplace, court, walls, trade (artisans, shopkeepers, merchants)
Name largest cities and number of people.
Paris - 200,000, Cordoba - 500,000, Constantinople - 300,000
things traders would bring to Europe from the East
spices, sugar, silks, carpets, slaves, clothing, wine
Commercial Revolution and mercantile capitalism
1) volume of trade increased and new complexity of business procedures, new capitalist spirit - imperative to make a profit, have wealth
2) merchants bringing back materials to sell
What does the word "sacrament" mean?
certain rituals defined by the church in which God bestows benefits on the believer through grace
7 RCC sacraments
1. baptism (mostly infant)- takes care of original sin, determines salvation, puts them on road to purgatory/heaven
2. confirmation - older person declaring faith after infant baptism (many people did not do this because bishops were busy and not a priority), understanding
3. Eucharist- communion, 1x a year @ easter
4. penance- making up for sin (pilgrimage, saying Lord's prayer a certain amount of times)
5. marriage (done in church) or 6. holy orders/ priestly ordination- no marriage, devoted for life
7. anointment of the dying (last rites)
Describe three factors that led to a revival of learning in the 12th century
1. political and economic advances improved climates for intellectual pursuit
2. new knowledge from East - Greek/Roman/Arabic
3. gov't expanded so need for more education besides theology due to growth of towns
Had you lived before the development of universities and wanted to get an education, what were your options?
monasteries and cathedral schools mostly to become clergy, municipal schools run by towns
What explanation did medieval scientists give for why men go bald and have larger shoulders and brains than women?
men: hot and dry so hair burned out and they went bald, larger shoulders and brains because heat made things expand
women: cold and wet
What subject was considered the "queen of the sciences"? What does this term mean?
theology- the study of God who made all knowledge possible (foundation for all other subjects)
What was the best place to study theology in the 12th century?
Notre Dame in Paris
What method did the scholastics use to determine truth?
scholasticism- method of thinking, reasoning, and writing - question raised and rational answers given after discussing both sides of a subject from authorities such as Aristotle and the Bible, new knowledge from East so analyzed this
What significant event occurred around 1200?
founding of first universities
What could cause a professor at the University of Bologna to be fined?
-not having an audience of at least 5
-must begin with the bell and end one min. after next bell
-must cover a certain amount of material systematically throughout the year
What is vernacular literature?
local dialect that authors wrote in instead of latin which was the language used universities (French/German)
Who were the troubadours?
poets who wrote and sang lyric verses celebrating love, desire, and beauty
What is the origin of the word "cathedral"?
-church of a bishop / admin. headquarters
-Greek (kathedra) - "seat" - bishop/s throne, symbol of office
differences between Romanesque and Gothic architecture
Romanesque: rectangular buildings (as wide as it is tall), made of stone, rounded arches
Gothic: flying buttresses (stone supports), pointed arches and stone ribs filled with plaster that supported the majority of the weight of the ceiling so that walls could be constructed of more stain glass windows
significant event of 1163
began building Notre Dame
For what were cathedrals used?
baptisms, masses, funerals, saint's day services, guild meetings (organization of people of same trade - blacksmiths)
What is polyphony?
adding voices in different pitches to chanting by clergy in the form of liturgical music called plain song/Gregorian chanting
theologian/philosopher, archbishop of canterbury
What is the name of Anselm's famous argument for the existence of God?
ontological argument for God's existence
Anselm's view of atonement
satisfaction theory of atonement - God having been dishonored by sin, must receive satisfaction. JC - both man and God provides that satisfaction
What did Anselm say about the relationship between belief and understanding?
do not understand in order to believe, believe in order to understand
brilliant French scholar and teacher
name of famous book and subject material (PA)
Sic at Non: "Yes and No" - different positions of church leaders (free will)
What did Peter Abelard say about the value of doubt?
doubting = questioning = truth
Abelard's view of atonement
moral influence theory of atonement, cross = ultimate display of God's love and in response to the love of God thus displayed we, in turn, love God and live for God rather than continuing in sin
Dominican friar, professor at university of Paris
famous book (TA)
Summa Theologica ("5 Ways": Proofs for God's existence), answers to everything/all sorts of questions
What possibilities does human reason offer? What limitations are there to reason? What is the relationship between reason and faith?
human reason can only go so far - make conjectures about the natural world until it hits a wall. Reason becomes speculation without faith. Reason and faith and divine reason and human reason must go together to fully understand the world around us. That is how God made our minds to work because He is omniscient.
What important social and economic changes took place in the High Middle Ages?
growth of cities, increased trade (moneychangers)
How did sacraments shape life in the High Middle Ages?
How did universities serve the needs of medieval society?
80 universities 1200-1500, education more accessible, legal, medical, and theological training needed because of the growth of cities