Quiz Questions - Ch. 56 and 60 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Quiz Questions - Ch. 56 and 60 Deck (34):

What modern countries overlay ancient Scandinavia?

Norway, Sweden, Iceland, Finland, and Denmark


How large was Charlemagne's kingdom at its greatest extent?

Spain/Cordoba to the East, Italy/Lombard kingdom to the south (where he was considered the protector of the papal states), North: Scandinavia where he fought against Swedes and Danes


Why was Charlemagne's empire inherited by only one of his many sons?

They all died by 813 - 1 in 810 (Pippin) and one the next year from a stroke - Louis the Pious at 35 declared the joint king and emperor with Charlemagne before he died


By the time of Charlemagne's grandsons, who were the Franks primarily at war with?

themselves; civil war because Louis married again and had son (Charles) to whom he gave part of his other son's land (Lothair). Lothair declared war with other bros (Louis and Pippin) with whom he split the empire. Lothair sent Charles to monastery. Louis convinces other sons to overthrow Lothair who had to promise never to overthrow him again. After Louis dies, Lothair vs. Charles and Louis.


What tradition of Frankish kings served to destroy the greatness of their kingdoms?

Charlemagne's rule/job: guardian of civilization to an unruly people and defender of the bishop of Rome (serene Augustus)
Louis: changing definition of emperor


What invaders took advantage of the chaos in Francia?

During the war against Charles and Louis vs. Lothair, the Vikings attacked Al-andalus and sailed up Seine all the way to France (paris), raiding cities and trading posts. 3 bros stopped with Treaty of Verdun in 843, splitting territory


What natural anomaly may have been a contributing factor in Viking invasion?

Medieval Warm Period - melted ice of northern sea routes allowing sailing year-round in the 800's


What were the methods the Vikings used to enrich themselves? Were the Vikings successful in their attempts?

ransom: 1) kidnapped and ransomed son (Garcia the first) of king of Pamplona (Inigo the first) and 2) chaplain of Charles (people staring to dislike him because they are paying for the ransom with their taxes)
bribe: sailed down Seine to Paris (Charles' kingdom), bought off with 7000 pounds of gold


How broadly did the Vikings sail in order to raid and pillage?

North Africa, Constantinople, Italy, Spain, and France


Where is the Baltic Sea?

north of Poland and Germany, east of Sweden and Norway, west of Finland


How did the Vikings manage to trade with the Arabs of Mesopotamia?

traveled through rivers and Caspian Sea, prosperous, selling furs


What evidence is there that the Vikings traded with the Mesopotamian people?

their sword material, crucible steel, which was made in a special furnace that heated up to 3000 degrees, melted impurities, now called damascus steel


How did the Byzantine Romans fare against the Vikings?

khagan (king of Finno Ugrian) sent them out with 200 ships and 1000 men toward Constantinople for bigger targets, plundered all surroundings around the walls - killing women, children, and elderly


How did the Vikings manage to get from Scandinavia to Constantinople?

traveled through rivers and Black Sea


Where did the Vikings raid in Britain?

attacking Picts in north from Ireland when first came, took Northumbria and York, Wessex, Mercia, and East Anglia


Who was the viking ruler?

Ragnar Lodbrok


How successful were the Britons against the Vikings?

not at all successful, East Anglia: quickly conquered because no army - Anglo-Saxons got to keep throne in exchange for food and shelter (*see rest in summary of Alfred's life)


Who were the two main rulers leading the resistance against the Vikings?

Alfred and Ethelred


How did most kings choose to deal with the Viking armies?

paid them off like sailed down Seine to Paris (Charles' kingdom), bought off with 7000 pounds of gold - couldn't hold Vikings off because surprise attacks and no armies


Write a short summary of Alfred's life.

King of mercia asks for help from King Ethelred wit Vikings - yes and paid them off. King mercia thanks him by giving Alfred daughter and future kingship
871- defeat E and A at Reading in sussex and few weeks later they take London, E dies at 30, Alfred becomes king and forced into peace treaty with Vikings
878- A forced into hiding, A-S sail away to find refuge, Odda wins against Vs finally, A comes out of hiding and defeats Vs
Treaty of Wedmore- Guthrum and Vs convert to christianity, southwest: A-S, northeast: Vs


How did the conflict end? Were the Vikings expelled from Britain?

878- A forced into hiding, A-S sail away to find refuge, Odda wins against Vs finally, A comes out of hiding and defeats Vs
Treaty of Wedmore- Guthrum and Vs convert to christianity, southwest: A-S, northeast: Vs
no because of treaty^ and because already mixed with natives


Why can Alfred truly be called "The Great"

peacemaker (allowed A-S to come back) and conquerer


What are the characteristics of demon worship we see throughout the world and how is this evident in the myths of the Vikings?

-demon possession
-human sacrifice
-conjuring evil spirits
• magic if seen in Odin and Freya- his feminine characteristic, witch
• chaos in giants who will win at Ragnarak
• deception in Loki


What is Valhalla?

Hall of the fall - underground but open-aired building, Odin houses dead here (escorted by warriors of Valkyrie - female demigods) until Ragnarak where giants will defeat them
- wake up, train, possibly killed but regenerate before dinner, celebration in mead hall
- only for soldiers chosen by Odin and fought in battle


Who is Odin? Satanic characteristics?

-one-eyed - given for wisdom
-chief of Aesir gods and Asgard
-bearded warrior
-creating strife in 9 different worlds*
-violent and encourages death*
-preparing for final battle which he will lose*
-crafty and sinister*


What were the moral considerations of the Vikings?

They had none. Blood eagle.


What was the belief of the afterlife for a Viking? How did this affect how his convictions and how he would interact with the world?

Valhalla, no punishment, treated people however they wanted, killing women, children, and men outside of Constantinople


How would the idea of a Christian afterlife change the day to day decisions and convictions of the individual?

Would fear God as in would be afraid of him because of his punishment. They might be conformed into Christianity when they know the true gospel but the more likely result would be they would become indignant however with a little more hesitation in their decisions.


How would the idea of an atheist afterlife shape the day to day convictions and decisions of the Vikings?

- no god, no afterlife
- Vikings would have no purpose, because every person needs a god to worship because it's a natural thing to want to worship God
- might become lazy because what's the point of fighting when you aren't going to Valhalla?


What were some of the superficial reasons why the Vikings were so ready adopt Christianity? Altruistic reasons?

1. Saw how wealthy and prosperous they were, powerful alliances, lost battle at Ragnarak


How can the political use of religion be seen in the events described in chapter 58?

the Moravian king asking both Michael 3 from Byzantium and king of France for spiritual truth. They both want to send missionaries just so that they can control the empire, convince them to go under the roman churh, and make Moravia under their rule. But, the people riot when the Moravian king is about to accept the Frank's loyalty and instead goes to Michael 3 and gets baptized and even calls himself Michael. So here we see that they made them become Christians just to get control and power and better ties


Think of one example from our modern society that proves that the government uses religion/ideal as a tool to manipulate their subject populations.



What national group sees a rise in their fortunes in chapter 59 and how does this occur?

Turks rise. They were needed by the abasid caliphs as body guards and then when one caliph's son runs to them for help, they kill the caliph and decide which caliphs after that


What is the state of Islam in the 9th and 10th centuries?

Divided. They are breaking apart and not a nation any more. The Turkish rise shows that they couldn't control their own empire, for they started to geographically split up into their different sections. Each section had its own leader and wanted their independence